While evidence from chronicles and annals makes up the bulk of the information historians can use to study medieval warfare, another good resource are the administrative documents produced by medieval governments. From the later parts of the thirteenth century, the crown of England developed a very large bureaucracy, which preserved a great deal of documents. Among the tens of thousands of letters, orders and documents from the English crown, one can learn a great deal about military affairs. In the following section, one can see the preparations and actions that the Edward I and his forces undertook in their ongoing war with Scotland at the turn of the fourteenth-century.
December 30, 1299: Orders by the king and council regarding preparations for war in Scotland.
(a) [That the justiciar and treasurer … of Ireland array 300 hobelars and ensure that sufficient aid is provided to cover the victualling and other costs of these men in coming to the king, staying in Scotland and returning.] They are to send all the victuals they can to Skineboroness, to be there by 24 June, and are to require and bind merchants to bring victuals, sending the names of such merchants to the wardrobe. [See Cal. Pat. R. 1292-1301, 488.]
(b) That writs be sent to the sheriffs of Somerset, Dorset, Devon, Cornwall and Gloucester and to the bailiff of Haverford and justice of Chester, [ordering] them to require merchants to bring victuals to Carlisle. [See Cal. Close R. 1296-1302, 382.] Similar writs are to be sent to the earl of Cornwall. The king wishes that these writs instruct the addressees to purvey livestock [and other victuals, specified], and similar commands are to be sent to those making the purveyance for Berwick.
(c) That there be great purveyance of victuals in the counties between the mouth of the Thames and Berwick and that they be brought to the ports in these counties, to be sent to Berwick for sustenance of the army all the following winter. The officials of these parts are to induce and bind merchants to bring victuals for sale to where the king will be all the time he stays in Scotland, [returning] the names of such merchants to the wardrobe and [promising] them that they will be well paid and kept from harm.
(d) That the justices of both benches and the barons of exchequer be at parliament on the second [Sunday] in Lent, when the bishop of Chester will tell them the arrangements for their adjournment to York.
(e) That all the sheriffs of England and certain men of the counties warn all who have £40 of land or more to be prepared to come with horses and arms to Carlisle. [See Cal. Close R. 1296-1302, 380.]
(f) That the horsemen and footmen chosen to go to Berwick, who returned after receiving the king’s wages, should be imprisoned during his will. [See Cal. Close R. 1296-1302, 379.]
French. [C 49/ 2/27] [Faded].
1299: Defences submitted by English ambassadors to Pope Boniface VIII, regarding their refusal to treat with the French on matters touching Scotland.
Item, in the peace treaties and truces made by the cardinal bishops of Albano and Palestrina, papal ambassadors, or in any of the 3 treaties made between the kings of France and England, no mention was ever made of the king or kingdom of Scotland. However, the king of France specifically named the counts of Hanonens’ [Hainault] and Luteburgens’ [Luxemburg], the dauphin of Vienne, and Godefrey de Brabancia as his allies in the first of these truces, and said in general that he had other allies from Flanders, Gascony and else–where of whose names he was at that time ignorant. Moreover, a year or more before any of these truces, the former king of Scots freely admitted his many crimes against the king of England, handed over his kingdom, swore on the gospels to be faithful and not to harm the king of England in any way, and placed himself at the king’s disposal. The Scots nobles took a similar oath and many of them went with the king of England to fight in Flanders, receiving his wages like other of his liegemen, at the time that the said truce was made. Therefore the ambassadors state that the former king of Scots, his kingdom and subjects, can in no way be included in any negotiations; they explained to the pope that they had nothing to say to the French ambassadors concerning this and that, if the French were to mention it, they should not be heard.
April 30, 1300: Privy seal writ from [King Edward I] to [Walter Langton], bishop of Chester, treasurer.
[The treasurer and barons of exchequer do not think that the king should send writs under the exchequer seal to summon footmen from beyond Trent for service in Scotland, as he ordered them to do, because this was always done in the past under the great seal.] The king accordingly orders them, with the chancellor, to make and send writs under the great seal to the counties beyond Trent for the choosing of between 15,000 and 20,000 suitable footmen, who are to be at Carlisle by the third or fourth day after St John next, as he ordered them before. He does not wish them to summon footmen from Wales, who have been excused for the great labour they have done before in his service. The treasurer and the bishop of Durham recently sent Mr Richard Dabingdon to distribute the king’s victuals at Carlisle to John de St John, Robert de Clifford and the others who are there at the king’s wages from Easter until Trinity next; the king thanks the treasurer for this and orders him to send all the aid and counsel he can so that these men may stay until the king comes there. He approves of the arrangement made between the treasurer and John de Creppingg, John de Byroun and the sheriff of York, that they would prepare the whole country and be at Richmond within 3 days when summoned, and [also of the arrangement] as to the bishop of Durham’s men. Orders the treasurer to send aid to the march whenever he hears that it is required, and to ensure that the castles of Lochmaben and Dumfries are better stored with victuals and other supplies, because John de St John has informed the king that they are poorly supplied. The king has heard that the covenant of Robert le fiz Roger expires at Pentecost and has asked him to remain until St John; he orders the treasurer to recompense Robert suitably for this stay and to ensure that the garrisons of the march are maintained in strength until the king comes to Carlisle. [The king details his proposed itinerary from Estaumford to Cawode; orders that lodging be prepared there and that he be kept informed of news of the march and of his enemies.]
Estaunford. French. [E 368/71, m. 35 r.].
July 15, 1300: Privy seal writ from King Edward [I] to John de Drokenesford, keeper of the wardrobe.
Sends under his seal the names of foot-soldiers of Yorkshire who have departed from the king’s service without leave, wickedly and treacherously deceiving him, whereby he and his host have suffered great harm and inconvenience. Orders that John and the bishop of Chester [Walter de Langton, treasurer] ordain that these men, whether in franchise or not, be taken and safely held in prison and in distraint, and not delivered up without the king’s special command; also that their lands, tenements and goods in that county, whether in franchise or not, be seized and kept in the king’s hand without delay, and that the king be answered to for the issues of these lands until he ordains otherwise. Because the king has heard that sheriffs and bailiffs sometimes counsel, abet and maintain things whereby he is ill served, he orders John in no wise to trust them in the execution of this, but to assign it to certain trusty men who will diligently apply their attention to perform the king’s commands in all points, in such a way that the men remaining in the king’s host in Scotland may take example from the punishment of these men who have served him so ill.
Dumfries. French. [SC 1/61/63].
July 27, 1300: Privy seal writ from King Edward [I) to W[alter de Langton], bishop of Chester, treasurer, or his lieutenant, to John de Langeton’, chancellor, and to John de Drokenesford, keeper of the wardrobe.
The king’s affairs in Scotland are much set back for default of good foot-soldiers. They are to have chosen from the counties nearest the march of Scotland, in addition to the number already serving with the king, 10,000 foot-soldiers, the strongest and best who can be chosen, and cause these men to be brought to Carlisle without delay, by sheriffs and others who can best and soonest bring them. They are to have this matter especially at heart, and assign to it will give all their attention to this business, and who should be assigned to pay the wages of these men in coming to the king.
Kirkcudbright. French. [SC 1/61/65].
After September 30, 1300: Note concerning the account of Nicholas Fermbaud, keeper of Bristol castle, for a.r. 25, 26 and 27 Edward I, detailing payments made by him to Scottish prisoners captured at the battle of Dunbar. [Extract]
£57 15s 10d, paid by him to Richard Siward junior, knight, John de la More, John de Clogham and John fil Alexander de Moreva, esquires, and to their 2 guards, for their expenses from 30 Sept. 1296 to 30 Sept. 1298, at the daily rate of 4d for the knight, 3d for each esquire, and 3d for each guard. Also 104s 8d paid to Alexander Comyn, knight, for his wages from 30 Sept. 1296 until 10 Aug. 1297, on which day he was released. £4 5s, paid to Robert le Graunt, esquire, for his expenses from 30 Sept. 1296 until 5 Sept. 1297, on which day he was released. f27 7s 6d, paid to John de la More and John de Clogham, esquires, and to one guarding them, for their expenses from 30 Sept. 1298 until 30 Sept. 1300. £4 7s 3d paid to John de Moreve for his expenses from 30 Sept. 1298 to 14 Sept. 1299, when he died in the same prison. 69s 4d paid to Richard Siward junior, knight, for his expenses for 208 days from 30 Sept. 1298 till 26 Apr. 1299, on which day he was freed at Benstede. 27s, paid for a horse taking Richard from Bristol to Benstede, and for 2 valets accompanying him for 11 days, going and returning. 50s 3d paid to a guard for [Richard] from 30 Sept. 1298 until 19 Apr. 1299, when he was relieved of this duty because of the freeing of the prisoner. [All rates of pay as above.]
[E 159/74, m. 64 d.]
January 14 – November 10, 1300: Account of Sir Robert Hastang, sheriff of Roxburgh
Receipts – He received £686 13s 11æd from Mr John de Weston, clerk, at divers times in this period, as much in money as in victuals. [He received 3 payments, each of £40, from the sheriff of York at the exchequer in May, from Robert de Woodhouse, clerk in Oct. and from Sir Ralph de Manton in part payment for a horse. He also received £1 10s from Ralph at Holmcoltram on 2 Oct.] He received £13 6s 8d from the sale of goods remaining after tl last accounting and £74 17s 2d from further such sales. Sum total of receipts, £896 7s 9æd. [Expenses.] Of this, his own wages from 14 Jan to 5 July 1300 were £34 16s, being 174 days at 4s daily. Wages for 1 knight for the same time at 2s daily, £17 8s. For 62 esquires for the same time, each at is daily, £539 8s. For 40 crossbowmen for the same time, each at 4d daily, £116. For 160 archers for the same time, each at 2d daily, £232. Total, £938 12s. [Hastang’s wages for 128 days from 6 July to 10 Nov. 1300 were £25 12s; those of 1 knight and 23 esquires for the same time were £12 16s and £147 4s respectively. The wages of 30 crossbowmen for 137 days, until 19 Dec., were £68 10s and those of 100 archers for the same time were £114 3s 4d; all rates of pay as above. Total for this period, £368 5s 4d.] Sum total of his expenses, £1307 17s 4d. Subtracting the receipts and £2 Its for the wages of certain esquires who left his contingent, the balance owed him on this account is £408 18s 6ºd. He is also owed £13 6s 8d for restoration of a horse of one of his esquires, making £422 5s 2ºd in all.
[E 101/331/ 7].
December 30, 1301: Privy seal writ from King Edward [I] to W[alter Langton] bishop of Chester, treasurer, and to John de Drokenesford, keeper of the wardrobe.
He has heard that a knight of Scotland who was of the company of William Wallace [came to ?] Bleyues [Blaye, dep. Gironde], behaving suspiciously, spying out the strength of the place, for which he was arrested. The addressees are to instruct the constable of Blaye, Guillaume Reymon de Gensalz, to have the knight put aboard the first ship for England and sent to Porchester castle under safe guard, to be handed over to the constable there until the king sends orders. A letter to the constable of Porchester under the great seal is to be carried by the knight’s escort; meanwhile the king will warn the constable to expect the prisoner, whom he is to guard until the king’s further orders are known.
Northampton. French. [SC 1/61/32]
[Note: The knight was William de Vieuxpont].
[c. 1300] [3 memoranda concerning payments to Sir Robert de Clifford. 2 ms.]
(i) To Clifford, staying in Cumberland and the adjacent parts with 60 armed horses for the defence of the Scottish march by an indenture made with the king, for the period from Michaelmas 1298 till the end of Pentecost 1299, total amount due 400 marks. [For the same service] from Pentecost 1299 till 3 Aug 1299 by an agreement made with the treasurer, £59 4s. For his robes [etc.] in a.r. 27 £10 13s 4d. To the same, staying with 30 men-at-arms in the company of John de St John for defence of the Scottish march, for the period from 12 Jan. to 24 June 1300, by an agreement made with the king and council at Berwick on 2 Jan. 1300, £333 6s 8d. For [his good service?] in a.r. 28, £6 13s 4d. For his winter and summer robes in that year, £10 13s 4d. For restoration of 5 horses which were in the king’s service with Sir Hugh de St John at Lochmaben in a.r. 28 and which were valued for knights staying in Clifford’s service at Carlisle, 141 6s 8d. As the king’s gift, for recompense of damages he suffered and to supplement the [foresaid] sum of 400 marks, £300. Total £1028 10s 8d, of which he received £945 17s 10d by divers prests, as much in money as in victuals delivered to him by Richard de Abingdon at Carlisle; there being still £82 12s 10d outstanding. (Endorsed) Payments to Clifford, a.r. 27 Edward I.
(ii) To Clifford for wages of himself and his men at arms staying at Carlisle and the neighbouring parts for the custody of the Scottish march, being that sum in which he was still in arrears by the account made with his man Henry de Wahull at Stepney in a.r. 27, £39 19s 8d. In money delivered to Henry from the exchequer on 22 Feb. by John de Wyresdale, receiver of money there, 80 marks. [2 payments by the treasurer in June, total £100.] Delivered to Clifford in victuals by Richard de Abingdon in a.r. 27, £137 4s 10d. In prests for his fee and robes, delivered to John de Cromwell at Carlisle in a.r. 26 and afterwards allocated to him at an accounting with Henry de Wahull at Stepney in a.r. 27, £8. For the same, by the hand of Thomas de Haustede at Westminster on 20 Oct., £10; by the hand of Henry de Wahull at Berwick, £10; by his knight Cromwell on 30 Oct., £10; at Appelgarth on 6 June 1300, £5, at Caerlaverock on 11 July 1300, £4; and at Kirkcudbright on 20 July 1300, £5. By the hand of Henry de Wahull at Carlisle on 29 June, f30. [2 payments, each of £266 13s 4d, made by Richard de Abingdon.] Total, £945 17s 10d.
(iii) To Clifford for wages, in victuals delivered by Richard de Abingdon at Carlisle in a.r. 27, £117 4s 10d. The like to Sir Simon de Lindsay, £4 16s; Sir Richard Siward, £4 16s; Richard le Mareschal, £4 4s; the bishop of Carlisle, £136; Sir Hugh de Multon, £3, and Sir Roger de Kilpatrick, £3.
February 6, 1301
The barons of the Cinque Ports notify the king that the towns of these ports with their members can aid in his Scottish war with 12 good, large ships. [There follows a list of 30 other ports, including 2 in Wales and 6 in Ireland, with the number of ships they are to supply.] The total of these ships is 56, which the king can have for Scotland at his request without great grievance, as they understand. All should be at Dublin on the quindene of Pentecost [4 June] to go in the king’s service at his wages.
French. [SC 1/16/37]
[2 ports on the list have been struck through].
July 1301 [Extract]: [Roll of horses valued in a.r. 29 Edward I, which were in the company of Edward, prince of Wales, in the Scottish war. 3 ms. Only the main retinues are given here.]
6 July – Sir Guy Ferre junior, with 1 knight and 6 horsemen. 8 July – Sir Robert de Scales with 1 companion (socius), 2 knights and 11 horsemen. 9 July – Sir Robert de Tony with 3 knights and 11 horsemen. 10 July – Sir Hamo de Mascy with 1 knight and 10 horsemen. 13 July – Sir John de Engaine with 7 horsemen. 18 July – Sir William de Grandison with 2 knights and 8 horsemen. 19 July – Gilbert de Clare with 1 companion and 11 horsemen; Sir Robert de Monthalt with 3 knights and 13 horsemen. 20 July – Sir Thomas de la Roche with 1 knight and 8 horsemen; Sir Roger de Mortimer with 3 knights and 13 horsemen. 22 July – Sir Reginald de Grey, John de Grey his banneret, 3 knights and 23 horsemen; Sir Ralph de Gorges, 1 knight and 6 horsemen, being part of the retinue of John de St John; Sir William de Leyburne with 3 knights and 12 horsemen; Sir Edmund de Hastings with 1 knight and 5 horsemen. 30 July – Sir Maurice de Berkeley with 2 knights and 9 horsemen. [In all, 313 horses are valued in this roll.]
September 21, 1301: Letter from Alexander de Bailioel [of Cavers] to King Edward [I].
He has heard from the king’s letters that Sir John de Soulys has gone towards Galloway with a great company of Scots. The writer had and still has his spies among them, and will inform the keepers of the march as soon as he hears the Scots are coming. The king has told him that if he provided spies they should remain under his control, and he will do his best for the king. The king must not take it amiss that the writer has not given him news more quickly, for he would hate to send the king anything other than certain news. As to what the king has told him concerning Sir Walter de Borudoun, who is staying at Chastel Terres [Carstairs], the writer will be ready whenever Sir Walter commands him. The writer and his fellow keepers of the march are threatened by a possible Scottish raid to destroy the writer’s lands and to seize and defend the forest, so that they have arranged to gather next Sunday [24 Sept.] at a place on the march to inspect their forces. Asks for the king’s orders, as to one who is ready to obey.
Cavers [Roxburghshire] French [SC 1/15/2]
October 11, 1301: Privy seal writ from King Edward [I] to the treasurer or his lieutenant and the barons and chamberlains of exchequer.
He is greatly surprised that they have sent him so little money; each time some has come, the amount has been far too small. For this reason he has been unable to pay his troops; most of them have now left, and he cannot stop daily desertions from those still with him. The addressees are strongly charged to send all the money they can, as soon as possible. If shortage of money does not prevent him, the king hopes to end the campaign satisfactorily; thus they should ensure that their inefficiency does not force him to withdraw. In fact, the king thinks that he should now be sufficiently supplied from the revenues of last Michaelmas, the fifteenth, the tenth granted by the pope, and from other sources. Because his son is joining him, money for the prince and his company is to be sent direct to the king, and not to Carlisle; however, the garrisons of Dumfries and Lochmaben are to be supplied according to previous arrangements. They are ordered to send victuals to the king. So that they may be better advised of the exact amount of money needed, he sends a roll under his seal, giving estimates of his weekly requirements, without including his son’s company, of which he does not yet know the number. They are charged on their faith, as they love the king’s honour and profit and do not desire his perpetual dishonour, to do their best to ensure that his Scottish business goes well.
Dunipace. French. [E 159/75, m. 5 d.].
October 16, 1301: Privy seal writ from King Edward [I] to the treasurer or his lieutenant and the barons and chamberlains of exchequer.
The king complains that he is still seriously short of money, so that none of his promises to pay his troops have been kept and many men have deserted. This situation grows worse daily. But for lack of money, he would have completed the bridge across the Firth of Forth; he is sure that if he had crossed ‘this season’ he would have done such exploit against his enemies that his business would have quickly reached a satisfactory and honourable conclusion. The addressees are ordered, as they wish to protect the king’s person from harm and his campaign from failure, to send as much money as possible, since the king intends to spend the winter in Scotland. Money sent into Scotland is to be sent to the king only, with the following exceptions: to Galloway for the garrisons of Dumfries and Lochmaben and to others guarding that march, and to Earl Patrick, who is at Noef Chastel sur Are. When the queen and the prince of Wales join the king, money is to be sent straight to the king, except as above. Alexander le Convers, clerk, the bearer of this letter, will give further information about the state of the army and the campaign.
Dunipace. French. [E 159/75, m. 7]
October 22, 1301:
Writ from King Edward [I] to the treasurer or his lieutenant and the barons and chamberlains of exchequer, complaining of the continuing shortage of money; so many of his troops, both horse and foot, have deserted that he has not enough left to complete his campaign, and is in danger of losing what he had previously won. He is now going to Linliscu to spend the winter, hoping not to lose any more ground. The addressees are to send him as much money as possible in the future, otherwise, by their default, he will be dishonoured for all time. He will not accept the excuse that it is dangerous to transport large quantities of [coin ?]. Also, provisions are very scarce, and must be sent to him. Further information will be given by the bearer of this letter, Walter de Bedwynde, who is to take a reply back telling what steps are being taken to raise the money.
Priory of Emmanuel? Almost illegible. French. [E 159/75, m. 10].
May-October 1301: [Wardrobe account book. 22 fos.]
To Robert de Barton, clerk of the chancery, assigned with Hugh Gobyon and William de Felton to choose footmen in Northumberland and take them to the king’s army at Berwick, for his wages from 29 May-19 July at 18d daily, by his own hands [at Berwick], 78s. To Robert de Farnham, the king’s naperer, for a horse bought to carry the king’s napery in the war, by his own hands at Kelso, 13s 4d. To William de Felton, for 5 lances bought by him to carry 5 of the king’s banners in the war, at Kelso, 10s. To Mr John de Arderne, for the carriage and escort of money from Berwick to Roxburgh at the end of July, by his own hands at Roxburgh, 3s. To John de Okham, clerk, for the carriage of 2000 marks from Berwick to Edinburgh for 3 days, and from there to the king at Peebles for one day, both for the hackneys carrying the money and their guards, by his own hands at Glasgow, 12s 2d. [On 8 September at Bothwell, Reginald lngeniator was paid 2s for a sling bought for the engine of Jedburgh, for which ropes costing 8s were also bought on 12 Sept.] To Nicholas, cokinus, for a horse bought by him and delivered to the wardrobe for carrying a tent, by his own hands at Glasgow, 20s. To William Trenchefoill, for 2 great ropes bought for the engine of Edinburgh, by his own hands at Edinburgh, 16s 2d. To William de Gretham, monk of Durham, following the king in the war with St Cuthbert’s banner, for expenses from 29 June when he left Durham to 8 Oct., by an account with him at Dunipace on 9 Oct., 102s. Sum of the page, £25 10s 7d. [fo. 18 v.]. To Mr Roger Causcy, surgeon, for his labours in healing [blank] footmen of the garrison of Stirling following the king and recently wounded near Beverley, by his own hands at Dunipace, 40s. To Benedict de Cantebrig’, for 3 large and 2 small ropes bought from him for 2 of the king’s engines, by his own hands at Berwick, 5 marks. Sum of the page, £9 11s 5½d. [fo. 19].
[For further payments on these folios to Reginald Ingeniator, a woman of Cadisou, Stephen Ingeniator, William Attiliator and John de Ocham, see vol. iv, 449-50, where they are printed from BM, MS. Add. 7966A, fo. 39 r.-39 v.; see also the payment to Alan de Jeddeworth on fo. 69. Alan’s guide is named in E 101/359/6, fo. 18 v. as Simon le Raa, forester of Selkirk, who received 3s expenses and 2s for a saddle bought for the ride. Ibid., fo. 18 gives an account of the king’s alms as in vol. iv, 448-9, from the entry dated 22 July at Kelso to that dated 22 September at Bothwell, with only minor variation.
1301: Account book of wages for the Scottish war. 12 pp Only the wages of bannerets and their retinues are given here.
To William le Latimer junior, for his own wages at 4s daily, and those of 1 knight at 2s daily and 6 esquires, each at is daily, from 20 July, when the horses were valued, until 22 Sept., by an account made with him at Bothwell on that date, £39. (Marginal) He received victuals in part payment from Richard de Bremesgrave at Berwick, to the value of £3 2s. To Hugh Bardolf, for wages of himself, 4 knights and 14 esquires, from 17 July, when the horses were valued, until 11 Oct., when he left the king’s army with 3 knights and 11 esquires, £111 16s. To the same for wages of John Carbonel, knight, and 3 esquires, staying in the army after the others left, from 11-31 October, by an account made with Carbonel at Linlithgow on 31 October., £5 5s. To Robert de Scales for himself, 1 knight and 6 esquires, from 11 July, when the horses were valued, until 13 July, £1 16s. To the same for himself, 1 knight and 7 esquires, from 13 July, when the additional horse was valued, until 26 July, £8 9s. To the same for himself, 1 knight and 8 esquires, from 27 July, when the additional horse was valued, until 8 Aug., £9 2s. To the same for himself, 2 knights and 10 esquires, from 9 Aug., when the additional horses were valued, until 29 Aug., when 1 esquire left the king’s service, £18. To the same for himself, 2 knights and 9 esquires, from 28 August to 22 Sept., when 2 esquires left the king’s army at Bothwell, £20 8s. To the same, for himself, 2 knights and 7 esquires, from 22 September to 3 Oct., when a knight and an esquire left the army, £8 5s. To the same, for himself, 1 knight and 6 esquires, from 3-31 Oct., by an account made with him on 2 Nov., £17 8s. [All rates of pay as for Latimer.]
1300-1 Main items in an account made at Berwick by John de Weston, clerk, for the garrisoning of that town and castle and of other Scottish castles, in a.r. 29 Edward I. 16 pp. [Extract – Wages were paid as follows.]
For the Berwick garrison from 20 November to 21 May, £385 16s 6d. For the Roxburgh garrison, £189 2s. For Robert de Hastang, constable of Roxburgh castle, 40 marks. For the Jedburgh garrison, £67 2s. For Richard de Hastang, constable of Jedburgh, 40 marks. [All for the same period.] For the Edinburgh garrison from 27 Nov to 21 May, £127 4s 8d. To William le Latimer, 200 marks. For 56 men at arms at Berwick, from 21 May to 17 July, £173 17s. For crossbowmen at Berwick, £97 7s 6d, for archers there, £202 5s 8d, and for Mr Reginald, machinator there, £1 8s 6d. [All for the same period.] [Total wages for the various elements at Berwick from 18 July to 19 Nov., £565 2s 1d, and for the constable and garrison at Berwick in the same period, £58 17s 1d.] For Robert de Hastang and his troop at Roxburgh, from 24 July to 19 Nov., £208 5s. For archers, crossbowmen and workmen [etc.] there, £79 18 10d. For Richard de Hastang and his troop at Jedburgh, £65 9s. For archers, crossbowmen and workmen there, £43 12s 8d. [All for the same period.] For Hugh de Audleigh, staying in Selkirk forest in the king’s service, from 25 August to 30 Oct., £31 5s; for Thomas de Grey serving with him, £3. For Robert de Farnham, from 12 October to 19 Nov., 19s 6d. Expenses of various couriers, £4 4s. To William le Latimer for the keeping of the town and castle of Berwick from 12 June, £22. [Payments were made to workmen for repairs to an unnamed castle, total £19 13s 4d. Weston’s own wages from 20 Nov. 1300 to 19 Nov. 1301 were £21 2s 6d. A total of £46 was paid for restoration of lost horses.] Receipts – [A total of £892 7s 5d was received at various times from the exchequer. £46 was received from William le latimer on 25 May, and another £50 on 4 June. A total of £647 8s 10d was received from the wardrobe at various times from 18 July to 20 Oct., including £158 received on 20 July to pay the wages of the Berwick garrison from 21 May to 17 Aug.] Further receipts – From the sheriff of Northumberland on 4 Oct., for payment of the Berwick garrison, £58. From Richard de Hastang, constable of Jedburgh, on 18 Oct., £26 19s. From Robert de Hastang, sheriff of Roxburgh, on 19 Oct., from sale of victuals, £45 10s 9d. From Richard de Bremesgrave, regarding victuals in Berwick, Roxburgh, Jedburgh and Edinburgh, for the arrears of a.r. 28 until 25 Nov. 1300, and from then until 2 Mar. 1302 [sic], £710 5s 6d. [6 payments were received from the wardrobe between 8 Feb. and 19 July, total, £13 10s 11d. A number of small payments were also made by the wardrobe as arrears of Feb. 1300, for payment of various arrears of wages, total, £26 17s 9d.] Sum total of receipts, £2467 0s 2d. [List of 18 horses valued at Melrose on 13 Oct. 1301, including those of Sir Thomas de Grey and Sir Hugh de Audleigh. List of 14 dead horses; a total of £136 6s 8d was paid for restora–tion.] Prests – [4 prests to Patrick, earl of Dunbar, for provisions; one undated, others on 18 June and 8 Oct. 1299 and on 16 Jan. 1300, totalling £7 4s 8d.] To Robert de Tony, for expenses in going from Carlisle to the king at Linlithgow, on 30 Oct. 1301, £2. [Various small payments to messengers, etc., but incorporating a payment of £43 14s 3d to Richard de Winton. Total, £58 7s 3d.] Total payments in a.r. 29, £2804 5s 7d. Balance owed to Weston on this account, £337 5s 5d.
November – December?, 1302 : Names of men at arms staying in the garrisons of Scottish castles.
In the castle of Linlithgow. Sir William de Felton has 15 covered horse, of which 1 is for [his] service. Sir Archebald de Levyngeston, 10. Sir Adam de Swynebourne, 4, of which 1 is for [his] service. Sir Edmund Foliot, 3. Sir John de Fulbourne, 3. Sir Laurence de la Ryvere, 3. Sir John de Luda, 3. [Sir Nicholas de Scotevill, 3, Sir Robert de Cantilupo, 2, and 3 from the knights of William de Rythre, all noted as having not yet come.] Each knight takes 2s and each valet 12d daily, excepting Levyngeston’s men, for whom he takes a lump sum at a fixed rate. [Names of 5 more men with 1 each, at 8d daily, and of 16 sergeants at arms, including Peter de Lybaud, each at 12d daily.] For service for lands held in Scotland – From the earl of Warwick, 3 men at arms. (Marginal – they have not come.) John la Ware, 1; Thomas de Umframvill, 1 (not come); Henry Touk, Robinet le Taillor and John Heiward, 1. Total, 6, who will stay at their own costs. Total of men at arms, 85; lacking 12. Also 100 footmen who are workmen completing the castle. In the garrison of Edinburgh. Sir John de Kingestone, 1 knight and 9 other men at arms, for whom he takes a fixed sum. [12 named soldarii at 10d each daily, 2 named sergeants at arms at 12d.] Service for lands in Scotland – Robert fitz Walter,-2; Kyngestone, 3; Sir Robert de Tony, 2; Sir Peter de Malo Lacu, 3; Sir William de Cantilupo, 2 (not come); Sir Robert de Scales, Sir Walter de Mouncy and Sir John de Merk, 1 each. Total 17 [sic], at their own costs, also 2 from Sir Adam de Welle, who stay in the castle of Yestre and will ride in Kyngeston’s company at his command. Total of 41 men at arms [sic]; lacking 2. Footmen – An attillator, a carpenter, a smith and garcon, a watchman, 20 balisters and 20 footmen taking daily wages as before at the time of truce. Castle of Terres [Carstairs]. Sir Walter de Burghdon, 10 men at arms. [20 named soldarii, including Peter de Lybertone, and 40 footmen, all at rates of pay as in vol. ii, no. 1321(6).] For lands in Scotland – Sir Walter de Teye, 3; Sir John fil’ Marmeduc, 2 (not come); Sir Fulc fil’ Warin, 2 (not come); John Spring, Robert le Conestable and John de Geytone, 1 each. Total of men at arms, 40. Kirkintilloch. Sir William Fraunceys, 3 covered horse; Sir John de Gymmynges, 2; Sir Henry de Pynkeny, 3. [19 men at arms, including Thomas de Rameseye and Gilbert de Meneteth. Total, 27. 2 smiths, a watchman, an attillator, 19 balisters and 19 archers, all named.] 20 archers chosen by Sir William Fraunceys at Linlithgow, whose names he has. Total of footmen and officers, 64. Town of Berwick. Sir Edmund de Hasting’, 6, for whom he takes a fixed sum. Sir John de Newengham, 2; Mr John de Weston, 4; Seitann Mar, socius, Robert de Evencle and Richard Walraunt, 1 each; John de Pencatlan, 1. Sir John Burdoun has 5 men at arms for keeping the sheriffdom. Berwick castle, 4 men of John de Segrave, at full wages. Total 25, of whom 20 suffice for the garrisons, and 5 to ride with Segrave. [8 balisters and 8 footmen in the castle, 40 balisters and 140 footmen in the town, balisters at 3d and archers at 2d daily.] Total of 53 men at arms assigned to stay and ride with Segrave. Roxburgh castle. Sir Robert de Hastang, 10, for whom he takes a fixed sum. Latimer – [Details of men in his company, as in vol. ii, no. 1321(11), total, 38. Footmen, as Edinburgh.] Jedburgh castle. Sir Richard de Hastang, 5 men at arms, for whom he takes a fixed sum, and 1 for his lands in Scotland. [Footmen as Edinburgh, but with only 10 balisters and 10 footmen.] Castle and forest of Selkirk. Sir Alexander de Balliolo, 30 men at arms. [Footmen as Jedburgh.] Dumfries and Lochmaben. Sir John de St John has 20 men at arms in these garrisons, at 12d daily. [Footmen – Each garrison as Edinburgh but with 20 balisters and 30 footmen.] Men at arms assigned to stay at Lochmaben and ride in St John’s company. From his own retinue, 52; from that of Sir Robert de Clifford, 10 (not yet come); a sergeant, [named], 1; all at the king’s wages. For lands in Scotland – St John, 10; Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, 10; [Robert de Clifford, 3, Henry de Percy, 3, John de Botetourte, 4, William de Ferariis, 3, Alan la Zouche, 3, all not yet come]. Total of men at arms assigned to St John, 98; lacking 25. Bothwell castle. From Sir Aymer de Valence, for lands in Scotland, 12. From Sir fil’ Pagan [sic], for the same, 2; from Sir Walter de Bello Campo for the same, 2. [Castles and sheriffdoms of Peebles and Ayr, as vol. ii, no. 1324(6, 11).] Total of men at arms assigned to stay in these Scottish garrisons, 507; lacking 50.