Author Archives: DRM_peter

Venice and the Conquest of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

Venice and the Conquest of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem By Donald E. Queller and Irene B. Katele Studi Veneziani, Vol.21 (1986) Studi Veneziani is published by Istituto di Storia della Società e dello Stato Veneziano. We thank the editors for their permission … Continue reading

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Hungarian strategy against the Ottomans (1365-1526)

Hungarian strategy against the Ottomans (1365-1526) By Gyula Razso From Crecy to Mohacs: Warfare in the Late Middle Ages (1346-1526): XXIInd Colloquium of the International Commission of Military History (Heeresgeschichtliches Museum: Vienna, 1997) We thank the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum of Vienna for … Continue reading

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Historical Invasions/Historiographical Inventions: Snorri Sturluson and the Battle of Stamford Bridge

Historical Invasions/Historiographical Inventions: Snorri Sturluson and the Battle of Stamford Bridge By Elizabeth Ashman Rowe Medievalia: A Journal of Medieval Studies, Vol. 17 (1994)  

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Cloth and Credit: Aragonese War Finance in the Mid-Fifteenth Century

Cloth and Credit: Aragonese War Finance in the Mid-Fifteenth Century By Alan Ryder War and Society, Vol.2:1 (1984) War & Society publishes scholarly articles on the causes, experience and impact of war in all periods of history. While articles dealing with … Continue reading

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From ‘Milites Christi’ to ‘Mali Christiani’: The Italian Communes in Western Historical Literature

From ‘Milites Christi’ to ‘Mali Christiani’: The Italian Communes in Western Historical Literature By Sylvia Schein I Comuni Italiani nel Regno Crociato di Gerusalemme / The Italian communes in the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem, edited by Gabriella Airaldi and Benjamin … Continue reading

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Between East and West: the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099-1291

Between East and West: the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099-1291 By Sylvia Schein East and West in the Crusader States : Context, Contacts, Confrontations Vol.1 (1996) East and West in the Crusader States: Context, Contacts, Confrontations is a series … Continue reading

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Rival and Epigone of Kiev: The Vladimir-Suzdal’ Principality

Rival and Epigone of Kiev: The Vladimir-Suzdal’ Principality By Ihor Sevcenko Ukraine between East and West: Essays on Cultural History to the Early Eighteenth Century (Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1996) Thank you to Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, … Continue reading

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The Alexandrian Crusade (1365) and the Mamluk Sources: Reassessment of the kitab al-ilmam of an-Nuwayri al-Iskandarani

The Alexandrian Crusade (1365) and the Mamluk Sources: Reassessment of the kitab al-ilmam of an-Nuwayri al-Iskandarani By Jo Van Steenbergen East and West in the crusader states : context, contacts, confrontations, Vol.3 (2003)

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‘Spurred on by the Fear of Death’: Refugees and Displaced Populations during the Mongol Invasion of Hungary

“Spurred on by the Fear of Death”: Refugees and Displaced Populations during the Mongol Invasion of Hungary By James Ross Sweeney Nomadic Diplomacy, Destruction and Religion from the Pacific to the Adriatic: Papers prepared for the Central and Inner Asian … Continue reading

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The Battle of the Bannockburn (1314), according to the Vita Edwardi Secundi

The anonymous author of the Vita Edwardi Secundi provides one of the best accounts of the reign of Edward II.  This includes his description of the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, where the Scots under Robert Bruce defeated Edward and … Continue reading

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The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights against Lithuania Reconsidered

The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights against Lithuania Reconsidered  By Axel Ehlers Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150–1500, edited by Alan V. Murray (Ashgate, 2001) Between the late thirteenth and early fifteenth centuries ‘another Hundred Years’ War’ raged between … Continue reading

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The Career of Robert Guiscard, according to the Annales Lupi Protospatharii

Robert Guiscard was one of several brothers who came to Italy from Normandy to work as mercenaries and gain their fortune. After arriving in Italy in 1046, he served in several campaigns before taking the place of his brother Humphrey … Continue reading

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Journal of the Movements of King Edward I in Scotland, 1296

The following account is a short journal that describes the expedition of Edward I into Scotland. Starting on March 25, 1296, it runs to September 16th, and describes the various movements and events very tersely. This was Edward’s first expedition … Continue reading

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Medieval warfare from The King’s Mirror, a thirteenth century Norwegian text

This Norwegian work, written in the mid-13th century, is in the style of a son asking his father various questions, ranging from the reasons for the shorter days in Scandinavian lands to the power and authority of kings.  Halfway through chapter 36, … Continue reading

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Philippe de Remy’s description of a fictionalised tournament at Ressons-Gournay (c.1241)

Translated by David Crouch Philip de Remy (d.c.1264) was a poet, novelist and knight from the region of the northern Ile-de France. He was in royal service by the 1230s, being bailiff of the Gatinais from Count Robert of Artois, … Continue reading

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Jacques de Vitry: Sermons to a Military Order

Translated by Helen J. Nicholson Sermons 37 and 38 from his sermon collection, Sermones Vulgares, ‘Sermons to the People’, published by J. B. Pitra, ed., Analecta novissima spicilegii Solesmensis: altera continuatio 2, Tusculana (Paris, 1888). This translation is copyright H. … Continue reading

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The Siege of Termes (1210), according to the Historia Albigensis

Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay is one of the most important sources for the Albigensian Crusades. It is likely that he traveled with the Crusader armies of Simon de Montfort, and was an eyewitness to many of the events he describes. … Continue reading

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The Siege of Termes (1210), according to the Song of the Cathar Wars

The flourishing of a dualist heresy in Languedoc at the end of the twelfth century, known as Catharism, led to conflict with the Catholic Church. After the murder of a Papal legate in 1208, Pope Innocent III ordered a crusade … Continue reading

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The Siege of Toulouse in 1217-18, according to The Chronicle of William of Puylaurens

William of Puylaurens covered events relating to the history of Languedoc from the twelfth century to the mid-1270s.  The main subject of his history is the Albigensian Crusade, which lasted from 1209 to 1229.  Along with the Historia Albigensis of … Continue reading

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The Battle of Lincoln (1217), according to Roger of Wendover

Roger of Wendover (d.1236) was a monk at St.Alban’s monastery in England.  His work, Flores historiarum (Flowers of History) is a chronicle that starts at creation and goes to 1235.  From 1201 to 1235 his work is original.  In the … Continue reading

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Two Poems by the Twelfth-Century Knight-Troubadour Bertran de Born

Bertran de Born (c.1140-1202), lord of Autofort, was one of the most famous French troubadours of the Twelfth century. His poetry covers a wide variety of topics, including warfare. Be’m plai lo gais temps de pascor[1] Well do I love … Continue reading

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The Battle of Gisors, 1198, according to Roger of Hoveden

The Annals of Roger of Hoveden provide an account of the Battle of Gisors between Richard I of England and Philip Augustus of France, which took place in 1198. Hoveden writes down two versions of this battle, and includes a … Continue reading

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Warfare in England and France in 1173-74, according to William of Newburgh

William of Newburgh (d.1198) was one of England’s most important historians in the twelfth century.  In the following section, he details the war that broke out in 1173 between Henry II against his son, Henry, called ‘The Younger’.  Henry II … Continue reading

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Description of a Motte and Bailey Castle from Flanders, from the 12th century

Walter, archdeacon of the diocese of Thérouanne, spent his youth among the regular canons of Saint Martin of Ypres whence he was called by John of Warneton, bishop of Thérouanne in 1115. John made him archdeacon of Flanders in 1116 … Continue reading

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Warfare in Flanders, according to Galbert of Bruges’ The Murder of Charles the Good

Galbert of Bruges was a cleric who worked principally in the fiscal administration of the castellany of Bruges. He was thus a marginal member of the count’s curia, at least when the count was in Bruges, and it is reasonable … Continue reading

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In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Takesaki Suenaga’s Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of Japan

In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Takesaki Suenaga’s Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of Japan Translated by Thomas D. Conlan This volume, published the East Asian Program at Cornell University, presents a fundamental revision of the thirteenth-century Mongol invasions of … Continue reading

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Black Camels and Blazing Bolts: The Bolt-Projecting Trebuchet in the Mamluk Army

Black Camels and Blazing Bolts: The Bolt-Projecting Trebuchet in the Mamluk Army By Paul E. Chevedden Mamluk Studies Review, Vol. 8:1 (2004) The Mamluks pioneered the use of gunpowder ordnance, but their principal piece of heavy artillery was “the crushing, … Continue reading

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A Plan to regain the Holy Land from the Master of the Hospitallers (c.1305)

Following the expulsion of the Crusaders from their last outpost of Acre in 1291, several attempts and plans were made to bring back Christian rule to Jerusalem and the Holy Land. In the following memorandum, Fulk of Villaret, master of the Hospitallers, proposes this invasion plan. Continue reading

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The Seventh Crusade (1249), according to Abu al-Faraj Gregory Bar Hebraeus

Bar Hebraeus (1226-1286) is one the best known Syriac writers of the Middle Ages.  His Chronography contains a history of the world from creation until his own time.  Most of his information relates to events in the Middle East, including … Continue reading

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Robert of Clari’s account of the Fourth Crusade

Robert of Clari was a knight from Picardy who took part in the Fourth Crusade, which ended with the capture of Constantinople in 1204.  Robert seems to have returned to France in 1205, since although his work contains references up … Continue reading

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Two accounts of the conquest of Cyprus by Richard the Lionheart (1191)

The following are two accounts of the invasion of Cyprus by Richard I in 1191.  The Seljuk Turk under Saladin had recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 and Cyprus’ geographical position placed her on the route of the Crusaders from Western Europe … Continue reading

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