Tag Archives: 12C

William Marshal, King Henry II and the Honour of Chateauroux

William Marshal, King Henry II and the Honour of Chateauroux By Nicholas Vincent Archives: The Journal of the British Record Association Vol.25 No.102 (2000) Chance plays a large part in the survival of medieval charters. Written on parchment, and in many … Continue reading

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Killing or Clemency? Ransom, Chivalry and Changing Attitudes to Defeated Opponents in Britain and Northern France, 7-12th centuries

Killing or Clemency? Ransom, Chivalry and Changing Attitudes to Defeated Opponents in Britain and Northern France, 7-12th centuries Matthew J. Strickland Krieg im Mittelalter (2001) On 25 September, 1066, the forces of King Harold II of England fell upon the … Continue reading

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The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know?

The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know? Timothy Reuter Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society in a European Perspective, AD 1-1300 (Copenhagen, 1997) Abstract The study of medieval warfare has probably both benefitted and suffered from … Continue reading

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English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness

English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness Nicholas C.J. Pappas (Sam Houston State University, 2004) One of the most interesting episodes in Byzantine military history and in medieval English history is the Anglo-Saxon … Continue reading

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A Military History of Belarusian Lands Up to the End of Twelfth Century A.D.

A Military History of Belarusian Lands Up to the End of Twelfth Century A.D. Jahor Novikaǔ Jahor Novikaǔ A Military History of Belarusian Lands Up to the End of 12th Century A.D. Vol. 1. (Minsk, Belarus: Łohvinaǔ, 2007). (Новікаў Я.У. … Continue reading

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‘Treachery in the Remotest Territories of Scotland’: Northern Resistance to the Canmore Dynasty, 1130-1230

‘Treachery in the Remotest Territories of Scotland’: Northern Resistance to the Canmore Dynasty, 1130-1230 R. Andrew McDonald (University College of Cape Breton) Canadian Journal of History: vol. 33 (August 1999), pp. 161-192 The Annals of Ulster, a rich source of … Continue reading

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The Crusading Motivation of the Italian City Republics in the Latin East, c. 1096-1104

The Crusading Motivation of the Italian City Republics in the Latin East, c. 1096-1104 Christopher J. Marshall Rivista di Bizantinistica v.1 (1991) Throughout the 200 years of its existence, the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was heavily reliant upon the Italian city … Continue reading

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The Rouen Riot and Conan’s Leap

The Rouen Riot and Conan’s Leap Warren Hollister Peritia: v. 10 (1996) In the course of the eleventh century, and more commonly in the twelfth, many of the growing towns of Western Europe were disrupted by communal riots. The objective … Continue reading

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Militia and Malitia: The Bernardine Vision of Chivalry

Militia and Malitia: The Bernardine Vision of Chivalry Areyh Grabois The Second Crusade and the Cistercians: New York (1992) In his treatise, De laude novae militiae,l Bernard of Clairvaux distinguished between the Templars and the entire secular knighthood. The first … Continue reading

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Dover Castle and the Great Siege of 1216

Dover Castle and the Great Siege of 1216 John Goodall Chateau Gaillard XIX: Actes du Colloque International de Graz, 1998 (2000) Commanding the shortest sea crossing between England and the Continent, Dover Castle was a vital strategic and communication lynch-pin … Continue reading

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Anna Comnena, the Alexiad and the First Crusade

Anna Comnena, the Alexiad and the First Crusade John France  Reading Medieval Studies: v.10 (1984) Abstract By her own account Anna Comnena began to write the Alexiad shortly after the death of her husband, Nicephoros Bryennios, in 1137. He had … Continue reading

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The Siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194

The Siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194 Trevor Foulds Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire: v.95 (1991) The last years of King Henry II’s reign were troubled by fierce family squabbles between him and his sons, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey and … Continue reading

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The Origin of the Second Crusade

The Origin of the Second Crusade George Ferzoco The Second Crusade and the Cistercians (1992) In seeking to establish the formal origin of the Second Crusade, one finds that in Vetralla on December 1,1145, Pope Eugenius III issued the crusading … Continue reading

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Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader

Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader Susan Edgington Crusade and Settlement: Papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail (1985) Thousands of men participated in the … Continue reading

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Looking Back on the Second Crusade: Some Late Twelfth-Century English Perspectives

Looking Back on the Second Crusade: Some Late Twelfth-Century English Perspectives Peter W. Edbury The Second Crusade and the Cistercians It was as long ago as 1953 that Giles Constable published his seminal study, “The Second Crusade as seen by … Continue reading

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Two Poems by the Twelfth-Century Knight-Troubadour Bertran de Born

Bertran de Born (c.1140-1202), lord of Autofort, was one of the most famous French troubadours of the Twelfth century. His poetry covers a wide variety of topics, including warfare. Be’m plai lo gais temps de pascor[1] Well do I love … Continue reading

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The Battle of Gisors, 1198, according to Roger of Hoveden

The Annals of Roger of Hoveden provide an account of the Battle of Gisors between Richard I of England and Philip Augustus of France, which took place in 1198. Hoveden writes down two versions of this battle, and includes a … Continue reading

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Warfare in England and France in 1173-74, according to William of Newburgh

William of Newburgh (d.1198) was one of England’s most important historians in the twelfth century.  In the following section, he details the war that broke out in 1173 between Henry II against his son, Henry, called ‘The Younger’.  Henry II … Continue reading

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Description of a Motte and Bailey Castle from Flanders, from the 12th century

Walter, archdeacon of the diocese of Thérouanne, spent his youth among the regular canons of Saint Martin of Ypres whence he was called by John of Warneton, bishop of Thérouanne in 1115. John made him archdeacon of Flanders in 1116 … Continue reading

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Warfare in Flanders, according to Galbert of Bruges’ The Murder of Charles the Good

Galbert of Bruges was a cleric who worked principally in the fiscal administration of the castellany of Bruges. He was thus a marginal member of the count’s curia, at least when the count was in Bruges, and it is reasonable … Continue reading

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Two accounts of the conquest of Cyprus by Richard the Lionheart (1191)

The following are two accounts of the invasion of Cyprus by Richard I in 1191.  The Seljuk Turk under Saladin had recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 and Cyprus’ geographical position placed her on the route of the Crusaders from Western Europe … Continue reading

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A Norman-Italian Adventurer in the East: Richard of Salerno, 1097-1112

A Norman-Italian Adventurer in the East: Richard of Salerno, 1097-1112 George T. Beech Anglo-Norman Studies: v.15 (1993) Abstract The adventures, hardships, and disappointments awaiting the Europeans who went on the crusades have long been well known; indeed enough information has … Continue reading

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A Forgotten Crusade: Alfonso VII of Leon-Castile and the Campaign for Jaen (1148)

A Forgotten Crusade: Alfonso VII of Leon-Castile and the Campaign for Jaen (1148) Simon Barton Historical Research: v.73 (2000) Abstract Between 114-7 and 1149 the rulers of the realms of Christian Iberia conducted a series of victorious campaigns against the … Continue reading

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From Tyrants to Soldiers of Christ: the nobility of twelfth-century Leon-Castile and the struggle against Islam

From Tyrants to Soldiers of Christ: the nobility of twelfth-century Leon-Castile and the struggle against Islam Simon Barton (University of Exeter) Nottingham Medieval Studies: v.44 (2000) On 2 July 1120, Bishop Diego of León made a generous grant of property, … Continue reading

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Frederick I ‘Barbarossa’ issues rules for his army (1158)

The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I, nicknamed Barbarossa, often was engaged in campaigns in Italy against rebellious cities such as Milan. As he began one campaign in 1158, Frederick issued a set of rules for his army to follow. Frederick’s … Continue reading

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Frontier Warfare in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Campaign of Jacob’s Ford, 1178-79

Frontier Warfare in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Campaign of Jacob’s Ford, 1178-79 Malcolm Barber The Crusades and their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton (1998) The construction by the Latins of the fortress of Chastellet at the place … Continue reading

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The Siege of Tyre in 1111-12, according to the Chronicle of Ibn Al-Qalanisi

One of the most interesting contemporary accounts of the crusades comes from a twelfth-century resident of Damascus.  Ibn Al-Qalanisi was a distinguished scholar in Damascus, and was twice elected the mayor of that city.  His Chronicle begins in 1097 with … Continue reading

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Bom — Women in the Military Orders of the Crusades [TMR]

Myra Miranda Bom Women in the Military Orders of the Crusades The New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Pp. xiv, 230. $85.00. ISBN-13: 9780230114135. Reviewed in The Medieval Review: TMR 13.03.15 The topic of women’s participation in the military orders is one which … Continue reading

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Bysted et al. (eds.) — Jerusalem in the North (Albright)

A. Bysted, K. V. Jensen, C.S. Jensen, J. Lind (eds.) Jerusalem in the North:  Denmark and the Baltic Crusades, 1100-1522 Outremer. Studies in the Crusades and the Latin East 1 (Turnhout, Belg.: Brepols, 2012).  xiv+393pp. ISBN: 978-2-503-52325-5. According to the authors of … Continue reading

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“Fino alle mura di Babilonia”. Aspetti militari della conquista normanna del Sud

“Fino alle mura di Babilonia”. Aspetti militari della conquista normanna del Sud Giovanni Amatuccio Rassegna Storica Salernitana, n.30 (1998) L’apparizione dei Normanni nell’XI  sullo scenario mediterraneo si caratterizza, a livello militare, come un incontro-scontro con le diverse realtà preesistenti: Longobardi, Bizantini … Continue reading

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Saracen Archers in Southern Italy

Saracen Archers in Southern Italy De Re Militari, June (2001) Giovanni Amatuccio During the first phase of their Southern Italian conquest, the Normans included archers in their troops; but such usage seems to have been sporadic and simple. The tactic … Continue reading

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The tournament at Lagny-sur-Marne, from the History of William the Marshal

The following text details the tournament held at Lagni-sur-Marne, in 1179. Organized by Henry, count palatine of Champagne and Brie, this tournament was unusually large, with the writer of our history estimating that 3,000 knights attending. Continue reading

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Matthew of Edessa, Chronicle, Warfare in the Crusader States (1104-1127)

The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa is considered by scholars to be a primary source of major importance for the history of the Near East during the period of the early Crusades.  This work relates events that occurred between the … Continue reading

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Conquest of Cyprus by Richard I (1191)–Two Accounts

The following are two accounts of the invasion of Cyprus by Richard I in 1191.  The Seljuk Turk under Saladin had recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 and Cyprus’ geographical position placed her on the route of the Crusaders from Western Europe … Continue reading

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Multi-volume review of books on medieval warfare

A multi-book essay review by Sean McGlynn has appeared in the European Review of History/Revue europeenne d’histoire 20.1 (2013): 153-159.  For those who have institutional access, you should be able to link to it here.  The books reviewed en masse are Medieval Warfare 1000–1300, ed. … Continue reading

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Letter from Aymeric, Patriarch of Antioch, to Louis VII, King of France (1164)

In the following letter, the Patriarch of Antioch describes events in the Crusader States that took place in 1164.  To describe briefly, the King of Jersualem, Amalric I, joined forces with a Kurdish emir, Shirkuh, to besiege the Egyptian city … Continue reading

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Ibn al-Athīr’s Accounts of the Rūs (10th to 13th centuries)

Translated by William Watson. From: Canadian/American Slavic Studies 35 (2001). 1. al-Kāmil fi ‘t-Ta’rīkh, viii, 412-415 “The Rūs Seizure of the Town of Barda’a” (332 A.H./943-944 A.D.) In this year (332) armed bands of Rūs went by sea (the Caspian) to the … Continue reading

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The Siege of Ascalon (1153) According to Contemporary or Near-contemporary Western European Sources

Translated by Helen Nicholson from the editions in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores, ed.Bill Zajac. In 1153, Baldwin launched a major attack on Ascalon, with an army large enough to invest the great city completely. The siege dragged on for months, with … Continue reading

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Boncompagno da Signa, The History of the Siege of Ancona (1173)

Boncompagno da Signa (1168?-1240?) was an important Italian scholar who wrote several treatises and other works as he moved around between cities such as Ancona, Bologna and Venice.  His account of the siege of Ancona, which he wrote around 1201, … Continue reading

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Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum, Battle of Stiklastaðir (1030) and Campaign of King Magnus Barelegs against the British Isles (1102-3)

Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum wrote his account of the history of the Norwegian kings around 1190.  Along with Theodoricus Monachus’ Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium and the anonymous Historia Norvegiae, this work represents one of the earliest surving accounts of the history of Norway and … Continue reading

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TMR 12.06.05 Rubenstein, Armies of Heaven (France)

Rubenstein, Jay. Armies of Heaven: The First Crusade and the Quest for the Apocalypse. New York: Basic Books, 2011. Pp. xiv, 402. $29.99. ISBN-13: 978-0-465-01929-8.  Reviewed by John France, United States Military Academy, West Point <John.France@usma.edu> Available at The Medieval Review 12.06.05

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TMR 12.02.22 Aurell, Le chevalier lettré (Livingstone)

Aurell, Martin. Le chevalier lettré: Savior et conduite de l’aristocratie aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles. Fayard: Paris, 2011. Pp. 540. EUR 26. ISBN: 978-2-213-66233-6. Reviewed by Amy Livingstone, Wittenberg University, alivingstone@wittenberg.edu Available at The Medieval Review TMR 12.02.22

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Adair, Countess Clemence and Her Role in the Comital Family and in Flanders (PhD, 1993)

“Ego et uxor mea… :” Countess Clemence and Her Role in the Comital Family and in Flanders (1092–1133) by Penelope Ann Adair Ph.D., History, University of California – Santa Barbara, 1993 ABSTRACT In an evaluation of Flemish countesses the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Clemence … Continue reading

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