Tag Archives: England

The French Chronicle of London on the Battle of Sluys and the Siege of Tournai

The French Chronicle of London, detailing events from 1259 to 1343, provides one of the best accounts of the naval battle of Sluys, and the siege of Tournai by Edward III in 1340. Continue reading

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‘Mount the War-Horses, Take your Lance in your Grip . . .’ Logistics Preparations for the Gascon Campaign of 1294

In June of 1294 Edward I decided to embark on the most ambitious and desperate campaign of his reign – the recovery of the Gascon lands seized by Philip IV, king of France. Continue reading

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Warfare Between England and Scotland, 1299 – 1301, according to Documents from the English Government

In the following section, one can see the preparations and actions that the Edward I and his forces undertook in their ongoing war with Scotland at the turn of the fourteenth-century. Continue reading

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Warfare between England and Scotland in the late 13th and early 14th centuries from the Chronicle of Lanercost

The Chronicle of Lanercost covers the period 1201 to 1346. The sections given below involve the ongoing warfare in Scotland between Edward the Second and Robert the Bruce Continue reading

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Warfare between England and Scotland in the late 13th and early 14th centuries from the Scalacronica

In 1355, Sir Thomas Gray of Heton, warden of Norham Castle, was captured during warfare with Scotland. While being held at Edinburgh Castle, Thomas began writing the Scalacronica, a history of England up to the reign of Edward the Third, with the work ending in 1362. Continue reading

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The Battle of the Bannockburn in 1314, according to the Vita Edwardi Secundi

The anonymous author of the Vita Edwardi Secundi provides one of the best accounts of the reign of Edward II. This includes his description of the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, where the Scots under Robert Bruce defeated Edward and his army. Continue reading

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William Marshal, King Henry II and the Honour of Chateauroux

William Marshal, King Henry II and the Honour of Chateauroux By Nicholas Vincent Archives: The Journal of the British Record Association Vol.25 No.102 (2000) Chance plays a large part in the survival of medieval charters. Written on parchment, and in many … Continue reading

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Profit and Loss in the Hundred Years War: the Subcontracts of Sir John Strother, 1374

Profit and Loss in the Hundred Years War: the Subcontracts of Sir John Strother, 1374 By Simon Walker The Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Studies, Vol.58 (1985) Among the Swinburne manuscripts in the Northumberland County Record Office is preserved a … Continue reading

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English Armies in the Early Stages of the Hundred Years War: A Scheme in 1341

English Armies in the Early Stages of the Hundred Years War: A Scheme in 1341 By Michael Prestwich The Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Studies, Vol.56 (1983) We thank the Institute of Historical Studies and the authors for giving … Continue reading

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Historical Invasions/Historiographical Inventions: Snorri Sturluson and the Battle of Stamford Bridge

Historical Invasions/Historiographical Inventions: Snorri Sturluson and the Battle of Stamford Bridge By Elizabeth Ashman Rowe Medievalia: A Journal of Medieval Studies, Vol. 17 (1994)  

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Killing or Clemency? Ransom, Chivalry and Changing Attitudes to Defeated Opponents in Britain and Northern France, 7-12th centuries

Killing or Clemency? Ransom, Chivalry and Changing Attitudes to Defeated Opponents in Britain and Northern France, 7-12th centuries Matthew J. Strickland Krieg im Mittelalter (2001) On 25 September, 1066, the forces of King Harold II of England fell upon the … Continue reading

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Knightly Arms – Plebian Arms

Knightly Arms – Plebian Arms Zdzislaw Zygulski Jr. (Kraków, Poland) Quaestiones medii aevi novae:  vol. 4 (1999) The science dealing with the arms of the past – Waffenkunde, hoplology – developed during the second half of the nineteenth century and … Continue reading

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The Tower of London and the garderobae armorum

The Tower of London and the garderobae armorum Randall Storey Royal Armouries Yearbook: 3 (1998) The history of such a treasured monument as the Tower of London is a famed account full of epic events and infamous deeds. Its place … Continue reading

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Ships and Fleets in Anglo-French warfare, 1337-1360

Ships and Fleets in Anglo-French warfare, 1337-1360 Timothy J. Runyan American Neptune: v.46 (1986) The most consuming military and naval conflict of later medieval Europe was the Hundred Years’ War. Beginning in 1337 and continuing until 1453 this struggle involved … Continue reading

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Caste, Skill, and Training: The Evolution of Cohesion in European Armies from the Middle Ages to the Sixteenth Century

Caste, Skill, and Training: The Evolution of Cohesion in European Armies from the Middle Ages to the Sixteenth Century Dennis E. Showalter The Journal of Military History: vol. 57 (1993) Abstract The Middle Ages were characterized by growing institutional sophistication, … Continue reading

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The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know?

The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know? Timothy Reuter Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society in a European Perspective, AD 1-1300 (Copenhagen, 1997) Abstract The study of medieval warfare has probably both benefitted and suffered from … Continue reading

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The Battle of the Bannockburn (1314), according to the Vita Edwardi Secundi

The anonymous author of the Vita Edwardi Secundi provides one of the best accounts of the reign of Edward II.  This includes his description of the battle of Bannockburn in 1314, where the Scots under Robert Bruce defeated Edward and … Continue reading

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English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness

English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness Nicholas C.J. Pappas (Sam Houston State University, 2004) One of the most interesting episodes in Byzantine military history and in medieval English history is the Anglo-Saxon … Continue reading

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‘Treachery in the Remotest Territories of Scotland’: Northern Resistance to the Canmore Dynasty, 1130-1230

‘Treachery in the Remotest Territories of Scotland’: Northern Resistance to the Canmore Dynasty, 1130-1230 R. Andrew McDonald (University College of Cape Breton) Canadian Journal of History: vol. 33 (August 1999), pp. 161-192 The Annals of Ulster, a rich source of … Continue reading

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Approaches to Conflict on the Anglo-Scottish Borders in the late Fourteenth Century

Approaches to Conflict on the Anglo-Scottish Borders in the late Fourteenth Century Alastair Macdonald Ships, Guns and Bibles in the North Sea and Baltic States c.1350-c.1700 (2000) In the summer of 1380, a flagrant breach of the Anglo-Scottish truce then in … Continue reading

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William Wallace’s Invasion of Northern England in 1297

William Wallace’s Invasion of Northern England in 1297 C.J. McNamee Northern History: v.26 (1990) In the winter of 1297 William Wallace, fresh from his victory over the English at Stirling Bridge, presided over a ferocious and prolonged devastation of northern England. … Continue reading

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The fortunes of war: the military career of John, second lord Bourchier (d.1400)

The fortunes of war: the military career of John, second lord Bourchier (d.1400) Michael Jones Essex Archaeology and History: v.26 (1995) ‘And yet time hath his revolution; there must be a period and an end to all temporal things, finis rerun, an … Continue reading

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Fighting for Land – Fighting for Power: War Aim Making in Renaissance Europe

Fighting for Land – Fighting for Power: War Aim Making in Renaissance Europe Harald Kleinschmidt The Way of the Knight and the Aesthetics of Women (2003) 1. Introduction During the twentieth century, war has mainly been equated it with a … Continue reading

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The Rouen Riot and Conan’s Leap

The Rouen Riot and Conan’s Leap Warren Hollister Peritia: v. 10 (1996) In the course of the eleventh century, and more commonly in the twelfth, many of the growing towns of Western Europe were disrupted by communal riots. The objective … Continue reading

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Dover Castle and the Great Siege of 1216

Dover Castle and the Great Siege of 1216 John Goodall Chateau Gaillard XIX: Actes du Colloque International de Graz, 1998 (2000) Commanding the shortest sea crossing between England and the Continent, Dover Castle was a vital strategic and communication lynch-pin … Continue reading

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Journal of the Movements of King Edward I in Scotland, 1296

The following account is a short journal that describes the expedition of Edward I into Scotland. Starting on March 25, 1296, it runs to September 16th, and describes the various movements and events very tersely. This was Edward’s first expedition … Continue reading

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The Campaign against the Scots in Munster, 1317

The Campaign against the Scots in Munster, 1317 Irish Historical Studies: v. 24 (1984-85) Abstract The document printed below has been preserved, somewhat unexpectedly, among the series of Ministers’ Accounts in the Public Record Office, London. it is the account … Continue reading

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The Siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194

The Siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194 Trevor Foulds Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire: v.95 (1991) The last years of King Henry II’s reign were troubled by fierce family squabbles between him and his sons, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey and … Continue reading

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The Battle of Lincoln (1217), according to Roger of Wendover

Roger of Wendover (d.1236) was a monk at St.Alban’s monastery in England.  His work, Flores historiarum (Flowers of History) is a chronicle that starts at creation and goes to 1235.  From 1201 to 1235 his work is original.  In the … Continue reading

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Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader

Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader Susan Edgington Crusade and Settlement: Papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail (1985) Thousands of men participated in the … Continue reading

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Looking Back on the Second Crusade: Some Late Twelfth-Century English Perspectives

Looking Back on the Second Crusade: Some Late Twelfth-Century English Perspectives Peter W. Edbury The Second Crusade and the Cistercians It was as long ago as 1953 that Giles Constable published his seminal study, “The Second Crusade as seen by … Continue reading

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Warfare in England and France in 1173-74, according to William of Newburgh

William of Newburgh (d.1198) was one of England’s most important historians in the twelfth century.  In the following section, he details the war that broke out in 1173 between Henry II against his son, Henry, called ‘The Younger’.  Henry II … Continue reading

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Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440s

Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440s David Ditchburn Ships, Guns and Bibles in the North Sea and the Baltic States, c.1350-c.1700 (2000) Bremen and Hamburg were the eyes through which medieval Saxony viewed the North … Continue reading

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Teenagers at War During the Middle Ages

Teenagers at War During the Middle Ages Kelly DeVries (Loyola University, Maryland) The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150-1650 (2002) Early in 1212 a young man from western Germany, whose name has come down through history only as Nicholas, became … Continue reading

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The Use of Gunpowder Weaponry by and Against Joan of Arc During the Hundred Years War

The Use of Gunpowder Weaponry by and Against Joan of Arc During the Hundred Years War Kelly DeVries (Loyola University) War and Society: v.14 (1996) Abstract This article explores the possibility of a link between Joan of Arc and the … Continue reading

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Contemporary Views of Edward III’s failure at the Siege of Tournai

Contemporary Views of Edward III’s failure at the Siege of Tournai Kelly DeVries Nottingham Medieval Studies: v.39 (1995) The naval battle of Sluys, the first major conflict of the Hundred years War, was fought on 24 June 1340. By the … Continue reading

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God, leadership, Flemings and Archery: Contemporary Perspectives of Victory and Defeat at the Battle of Sluys 1340

God, leadership, Flemings and Archery: Contemporary Perspectives of Victory and Defeat at the Battle of Sluys 1340 Kelly DeVries American Neptune: v.55 (1995) Most historians of the Hundred Years War see the battle of Sluys, fought on June 24, 1340, … Continue reading

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The Nationality of Men-at-Arms serving in English Armies in Normandy and the pays de conquete, 1415-1450: A Preliminary Survey

The Nationality of Men-at-Arms serving in English Armies in Normandy and the pays de conquete, 1415-1450: A Preliminary Survey Anne Curry (University of Reading) Reading Medieval Studies: 18 (1992) This article is based on a computer assisted study of muster … Continue reading

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Sex and the Soldier in Lancastrian Normandy, 1415 – 1450

Sex and the Soldier in Lancastrian Normandy, 1415 – 1450 Anne Curry (University of Reading) Reading Medieval Studies: v.14 (1988) When the US House Committee on Military Affairs discussed in 1941 the formulation of an Act to prohibit prostitution within … Continue reading

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Carolingian Arms and Armor in the Ninth Century

Carolingian Arms and Armor in the Ninth Century Simon Coupland Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies: v.21 (1990) This study seeks to ascertain the nature of the armament carried by the Carolingian army in the ninth century by examining the written, … Continue reading

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Robin Hood and Military Service in the Fourteenth Century

Robin Hood and Military Service in the Fourteenth Century Andrew Ayton Nottingham Medieval Studies: v.36 (1992) Abstract On 21 November 1338, forty-three archers joined the company of troops entrusted with the security of the Isle of Wight. The garrison pay-roll, … Continue reading

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Edward III and the English aristocracy at the beginning of the Hundred Years War

Edward III and the English aristocracy at the beginning of the Hundred Years War By Andrew Ayton Harlaxton Medieval Studies: v.7 (1998) At Ipswich on 17 June 1340, a week before the battle of Sluys, an English knight, William Tallemache, … Continue reading

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The Development of Battle Tactics in the Hundred Years War

The Development of Battle Tactics in the Hundred Years War Matthew Bennett Arms, Armies and Fortifications in the Hundred Years War (1994) It is a common aphorism that the history of war is too important to be left to military … Continue reading

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King John’s expedition to Ireland, 1210: the evidence reconsidered

King John’s expedition to Ireland, 1210: the evidence reconsidered Seán Duffy Irish Historical Studies, v.30, n. 117 (1996) The valiant efforts of certain professional historians to redeem the reputation of King John of England have had a limited impact on the … Continue reading

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The Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066) and the life of Haraldr Sigurðarson, according to Theodoricus Monachus

Theodricus Monachus’s De antiquitate regum Norwagiensium is one of the oldest historical works of Norwegian history. It is a Latin account of the kings of Norway from Hardaldr harfaagri (around the ninth century), to Sigurð Magnusson, who died in 1130. Continue reading

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