Tag Archives: England

Killing or Clemency? Ransom, Chivalry and Changing Attitudes to Defeated Opponents in Britain and Northern France, 7-12th centuries

Killing or Clemency? Ransom, Chivalry and Changing Attitudes to Defeated Opponents in Britain and Northern France, 7-12th centuries Matthew J. Strickland Krieg im Mittelalter (2001) On 25 September, 1066, the forces of King Harold II of England fell upon the … Continue reading

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Knightly Arms – Plebian Arms

Knightly Arms – Plebian Arms Zdzislaw Zygulski Jr. (Kraków, Poland) Quaestiones medii aevi novae:  vol. 4 (1999) The science dealing with the arms of the past – Waffenkunde, hoplology – developed during the second half of the nineteenth century and … Continue reading

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The Tower of London and the garderobae armorum

The Tower of London and the garderobae armorum Randall Storey Royal Armouries Yearbook: 3 (1998) The history of such a treasured monument as the Tower of London is a famed account full of epic events and infamous deeds. Its place … Continue reading

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Ships and Fleets in Anglo-French warfare, 1337-1360

Ships and Fleets in Anglo-French warfare, 1337-1360 Timothy J. Runyan American Neptune: v.46 (1986) The most consuming military and naval conflict of later medieval Europe was the Hundred Years’ War. Beginning in 1337 and continuing until 1453 this struggle involved … Continue reading

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Caste, Skill, and Training: The Evolution of Cohesion in European Armies from the Middle Ages to the Sixteenth Century

Caste, Skill, and Training: The Evolution of Cohesion in European Armies from the Middle Ages to the Sixteenth Century Dennis E. Showalter The Journal of Military History: vol. 57 (1993) Abstract The Middle Ages were characterized by growing institutional sophistication, … Continue reading

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The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know?

The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know? Timothy Reuter Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society in a European Perspective, AD 1-1300 (Copenhagen, 1997) Abstract The study of medieval warfare has probably both benefitted and suffered from … Continue reading

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English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness

English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness Nicholas C.J. Pappas (Sam Houston State University, 2004) One of the most interesting episodes in Byzantine military history and in medieval English history is the Anglo-Saxon … Continue reading

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‘Treachery in the Remotest Territories of Scotland’: Northern Resistance to the Canmore Dynasty, 1130-1230

‘Treachery in the Remotest Territories of Scotland’: Northern Resistance to the Canmore Dynasty, 1130-1230 R. Andrew McDonald (University College of Cape Breton) Canadian Journal of History: vol. 33 (August 1999), pp. 161-192 The Annals of Ulster, a rich source of … Continue reading

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Discretion and deceit: a re-examination of a military stratagem in Egils saga

Discretion and deceit: a re-examination of a military stratagem in Egils saga Ian McDougall The Middle Ages in the Northwest (1995) The last three decades have witnessed the publication of a great many valuable studies of the nature and extent … Continue reading

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Approaches to Conflict on the Anglo-Scottish Borders in the late Fourteenth Century

Approaches to Conflict on the Anglo-Scottish Borders in the late Fourteenth Century Alastair Macdonald Ships, Guns and Bibles in the North Sea and Baltic States c.1350-c.1700 (2000) In the summer of 1380, a flagrant breach of the Anglo-Scottish truce then in … Continue reading

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William Wallace’s Invasion of Northern England in 1297

William Wallace’s Invasion of Northern England in 1297 C.J. McNamee Northern History: v.26 (1990) In the winter of 1297 William Wallace, fresh from his victory over the English at Stirling Bridge, presided over a ferocious and prolonged devastation of northern England. … Continue reading

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The fortunes of war: the military career of John, second lord Bourchier (d.1400)

The fortunes of war: the military career of John, second lord Bourchier (d.1400) Michael Jones Essex Archaeology and History: v.26 (1995) ‘And yet time hath his revolution; there must be a period and an end to all temporal things, finis rerun, an … Continue reading

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Fighting for Land – Fighting for Power: War Aim Making in Renaissance Europe

Fighting for Land – Fighting for Power: War Aim Making in Renaissance Europe Harald Kleinschmidt The Way of the Knight and the Aesthetics of Women (2003) 1. Introduction During the twentieth century, war has mainly been equated it with a … Continue reading

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The Rouen Riot and Conan’s Leap

The Rouen Riot and Conan’s Leap Warren Hollister Peritia: v. 10 (1996) In the course of the eleventh century, and more commonly in the twelfth, many of the growing towns of Western Europe were disrupted by communal riots. The objective … Continue reading

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Dover Castle and the Great Siege of 1216

Dover Castle and the Great Siege of 1216 John Goodall Chateau Gaillard XIX: Actes du Colloque International de Graz, 1998 (2000) Commanding the shortest sea crossing between England and the Continent, Dover Castle was a vital strategic and communication lynch-pin … Continue reading

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The Campaign against the Scots in Munster, 1317

The Campaign against the Scots in Munster, 1317 Irish Historical Studies: v. 24 (1984-85) Abstract The document printed below has been preserved, somewhat unexpectedly, among the series of Ministers’ Accounts in the Public Record Office, London. it is the account … Continue reading

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Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader

Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader Susan Edgington Crusade and Settlement: Papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail (1985) Thousands of men participated in the … Continue reading

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Looking Back on the Second Crusade: Some Late Twelfth-Century English Perspectives

Looking Back on the Second Crusade: Some Late Twelfth-Century English Perspectives Peter W. Edbury The Second Crusade and the Cistercians It was as long ago as 1953 that Giles Constable published his seminal study, “The Second Crusade as seen by … Continue reading

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Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440s

Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440s David Ditchburn Ships, Guns and Bibles in the North Sea and the Baltic States, c.1350-c.1700 (2000) Bremen and Hamburg were the eyes through which medieval Saxony viewed the North … Continue reading

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Teenagers at War During the Middle Ages

Teenagers at War During the Middle Ages Kelly DeVries (Loyola University, Maryland) The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150-1650 (2002) Early in 1212 a young man from western Germany, whose name has come down through history only as Nicholas, became … Continue reading

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The Use of Gunpowder Weaponry by and Against Joan of Arc During the Hundred Years War

The Use of Gunpowder Weaponry by and Against Joan of Arc During the Hundred Years War Kelly DeVries (Loyola University) War and Society: v.14 (1996) Abstract This article explores the possibility of a link between Joan of Arc and the … Continue reading

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Contemporary Views of Edward III’s failure at the Siege of Tournai

Contemporary Views of Edward III’s failure at the Siege of Tournai Kelly DeVries Nottingham Medieval Studies: v.39 (1995) The naval battle of Sluys, the first major conflict of the Hundred years War, was fought on 24 June 1340. By the … Continue reading

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God, leadership, Flemings and Archery: Contemporary Perspectives of Victory and Defeat at the Battle of Sluys 1340

God, leadership, Flemings and Archery: Contemporary Perspectives of Victory and Defeat at the Battle of Sluys 1340 Kelly DeVries American Neptune: v.55 (1995) Most historians of the Hundred Years War see the battle of Sluys, fought on June 24, 1340, … Continue reading

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A Reassessment of Some Medieval and Modern Perceptions of the Counter-Crusade

A Reassessment of Some Medieval and Modern Perceptions of the Counter-Crusade Hadia Dajani-Shakeel The Jihad and its Times: Dedicated to Andrew Stefan Ehrenkreutz (1991) In an article entitled, “The Use by Muslim Historians of Non-Muslim Sources”, Bernard Lewis remarked: “For two … Continue reading

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The Nationality of Men-at-Arms serving in English Armies in Normandy and the pays de conquete, 1415-1450: A Preliminary Survey

The Nationality of Men-at-Arms serving in English Armies in Normandy and the pays de conquete, 1415-1450: A Preliminary Survey Anne Curry (University of Reading) Reading Medieval Studies: 18 (1992) This article is based on a computer assisted study of muster … Continue reading

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Sex and the Soldier in Lancastrian Normandy, 1415 – 1450

Sex and the Soldier in Lancastrian Normandy, 1415 – 1450 Anne Curry (University of Reading) Reading Medieval Studies: v.14 (1988) When the US House Committee on Military Affairs discussed in 1941 the formulation of an Act to prohibit prostitution within … Continue reading

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Carolingian Arms and Armor in the Ninth Century

Carolingian Arms and Armor in the Ninth Century Simon Coupland Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies: v.21 (1990) This study seeks to ascertain the nature of the armament carried by the Carolingian army in the ninth century by examining the written, … Continue reading

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Robin Hood and Military Service in the Fourteenth Century

Robin Hood and Military Service in the Fourteenth Century Andrew Ayton Nottingham Medieval Studies: v.36 (1992) Abstract On 21 November 1338, forty-three archers joined the company of troops entrusted with the security of the Isle of Wight. The garrison pay-roll, … Continue reading

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Edward III and the English aristocracy at the beginning of the Hundred Years War

Edward III and the English aristocracy at the beginning of the Hundred Years War By Andrew Ayton Harlaxton Medieval Studies: v.7 (1998) At Ipswich on 17 June 1340, a week before the battle of Sluys, an English knight, William Tallemache, … Continue reading

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King John’s expedition to Ireland, 1210: the evidence reconsidered

King John’s expedition to Ireland, 1210: the evidence reconsidered Seán Duffy Irish Historical Studies, v.30, n. 117 (1996) The valiant efforts of certain professional historians to redeem the reputation of King John of England have had a limited impact on the … Continue reading

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The Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066) and the life of Haraldr Sigurðarson, according to Theodoricus Monachus

Theodricus Monachus’s De antiquitate regum Norwagiensium is one of the oldest historical works of Norwegian history. It is a Latin account of the kings of Norway from Hardaldr harfaagri (around the ninth century), to Sigurð Magnusson, who died in 1130. Continue reading

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From Alfred to Harold II: The Military Failure of the Late Anglo-Saxon State

From Alfred to Harold II: The Military Failure of the Late Anglo-Saxon State Richard Abels The Normans and their Adversaries at War: Essays in Memory of C. Warren Hollister (Boydell, 2001) Abstract “It would be a serious error,” Warren Hollister acutely … Continue reading

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Potter — Monarchs of the Renaissance (Albright)

Philip J. Potter Monarchs of the Renaissance: The Lives and Reigns of 42 European Kings and Queens Jefferson, South Carolina: McFarland, 2012. 351pp. $40.00. ISBN 0-7864-6806-5. On the back cover of this book, there is a quotation that is belied … Continue reading

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English Logistics and military administration, 871-1066: The Impact of the Viking Wars

English Logistics and military administration, 871-1066: The Impact of the Viking Wars Richard Abels Military aspects of Scandinavian society in a European perspective, AD 1-1300 (1997) King Harold Godwineson is remembered as one of the great `losers’ in history, the … Continue reading

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Payments made to the men sent by the City to aid the King in his war with France (1338)

Paid to 40 men-at-arms for their arms and wages, 60 pounds.  Paid to the 60 archers, for their wages, bows and arrows, and other necessaries, 30 pounds.  Paid to the men-at-arms and archers aforesaid, as a courtesy, by order of … Continue reading

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Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum, Battle of Stiklastaðir (1030) and Campaign of King Magnus Barelegs against the British Isles (1102-3)

Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum wrote his account of the history of the Norwegian kings around 1190.  Along with Theodoricus Monachus’ Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium and the anonymous Historia Norvegiae, this work represents one of the earliest surving accounts of the history of Norway and … Continue reading

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