Articles


We are in the process of re-doing the website after the malware attack, but the old ARTICLE pages from 2011 are available via the WayBack Machine at archive.org

We will be slowly porting the old pages to the new system, but they should all remain assessible there until further notice.


We are pleased to offer this list of full text of books and articles about medieval military history.  We thank the authors and publishers for their permission in republishing this material.

Books/Dissertations | Intros/Chapters | Articles

Books and Dissertations

Ditcham, Brian, The employment of foreign mercenary troops in the French royal armies, 1415-1470 (PhD dissertation, University of Edinburgh, 1979)

Magdalino, Paul, The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade (Toronto, 1996)

Price, Jason, An Analysis of the Strategy and Tactics of Alexious I Komnenos (MA thesis, Texas Tech University, 2005)

Price, Neil S., The Vikings in Brittany - from Saga Book: The Viking Society for Northern Research volume 22 (1989), but is book-length article.

Temple-Leader, John and Marcotti, Giuseppe, Sir John Hawkwood: Story of a Condottiere (London: T. Fisher Urwin, 1889)


Book Introductions and Sample Chapters

Boffa, Sergio, Warfare in Medieval Brabant, 1356-1406 (Boydell & Brewer, 2004) – Preface and p.3-4.

Brooke, Christopher J., Safe Sanctuaries: Security and Defence in Anglo-Scottish Border Churches 1290-1690 – (John Donald, 2000) p. 1-13.

Burgtorf, Jochen, and Nicholson, Helen, International Mobility in the Military Orders (Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries): Travelling on Christ’s Business (University of Wales Press, 2006) – Preface and Introduction

Caferro, William, John Hawkwood: An English Mercenary in Fourteenth Century Italy (John Hopkins University Press, 2006) – Introduction

Carey, Brian Todd, Warfare in the Medieval World (Pen & Sword, 2006) – Introduction and Chapter 6

Christie, Niall and Yazigi, Maya, Noble Ideals and Bloody Realities: Warfare in the Middle Ages (Brill Publishing, 2005) – Introduction

DeVries, Kelly, Infantry Warfare in the Early Fourteenth Century: Discipline, Tactics, and Technology (Boydell, 1995) – chapter of Battle of Crecy

Engel, Pal, The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary (IB Tauris, 2001) – Preface and Introduction

Giono, Jean, The Battle of Pavia: 24th February 1525 (London, 1965) – Chapter 5

Handler, Andrew, The Zirids of Granada (University of Miami Press, 1974) – chapters 4 and 5

Harari, Yuval Noah, Renaissance Military Memoirs: War, History, and Identity, 1450-1600 (Boydell & Brewer, 2004) p.1-22

Hay, David, The Military Leadership of Matilda of Canossa, 1046-1115 (Manchester University Press, 2008) – Chapter 3

Imber, Colin, The Ottoman Empire 1300-1481 (ISIS Press, 1990) – Chapter 2

Johnson, Matthew, Behind the Castle Gate: From Medieval to Renaissance (Routledge Press, 2002) p. 1-54

Molin, Kristian, Unknown Crusader Castles (Hambledon Press, 2001)

Morgan, Philip, War and Society in Medieval Cheshire 1277 – 1403 (Manchester: Chetham Society, 1987)

Rider, Jeff, God’s Scribe: The Historiographical Art of Galbert of Bruges (The Catholic University of America Press, 2001)

Rogers, Clifford, War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360 (Boydell, 2001) – chapter on the Crecy campaign

Shboul, Ahmed, Al-Mas’udi and his World: A Muslim Humanist and his Interest in Non-Muslims (Ithaca Press, 1979) – chapter on the Byzantines

Stone, Daniel, The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795 (University of Washington Press, 2001) – chapter on the reign of Jagiello (1386-1434), king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

Suppe, Frederick C., Military Institutions on the Welsh Marches: Shropshire, A.D. 1066-1300 (Boydell & Brewer, 1994)

Tuzson, John, István II (1116-1131): A Chapter in Medieval Hungarian History (East European Monographs, 2002)

Walsh, R.J., Charles the Bold and Italy (1467-1477): Politics and Personnel (Liverpool University Press, 2005) – Preface and Introduction

Articles

Abels, Richard, English Logistics and military administration, 871-1066: The Impact of the Viking Wars – from Military aspects of Scandinavian society in a European perspective, AD 1-1300

Abels, Richard, From Alfred to Harold II: The Military Failure of the Late Anglo-Saxon State – from The Normans and their Adversaries at War: Essays in Memory of C. Warren Hollister (Boydell, 2001)

Amatuccio, Giovanni, Saracen Archers in Southern Italy

Amatuccio, Giovanni, “Fino alle mura di Babilonia”. Aspetti militari della conquista normanna del Sud – from Rassegna Storica Salernitana n.30 (1998)

Amory, Frederic, The Viking Hasting in Franco-Scandinavian Legend - from Saints, Scholars and Heroes: Studies in Medieval Culture (1979) (PDF file)

Antoche, Emanuel Constantin, Les expéditions de Nicopolis (1396) et de Varna (1444): une comparaison – from Mediævalia Transilvanica, v.4:1-2 (2000)

Antoche, Emanuel Constantin, L’expédition du roi de Hongrie, Mathias Corvin en Moldavie (1467) – from Revue Internationale d’Histoire Militaire v.83 (2003)

Arnold, Benjamin, German Bishops and the Military Retinues in the Medieval Empire - from German History v.7 (1989)

Arthurson, Ian, Espionage and Intelligence from the Wars of the Roses to the Reformation - from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.35 (1991)

Ayton, Andrew and Price, J.L., The Military Revolution from a Medieval Perspective – from The Medieval Military Revolution (1998)

Ayton, Andrew, Edward III and the English aristocracy at the beginning of the Hundred Years War – from Harlaxton Medieval Studies v.7 (1998)

Ayton, Andrew, Robin Hood and Military Service in the Fourteenth Century - from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.36 (1992)

Bachrach, Bernard S., Medieval Siege Warfare: A Reconnaissance - from The Journal of Military History v.58 n.1 (1994)

Bachrach, Bernard S., Caballus et Caballarius in Medieval Warfare – from The Study of Chivalry: Resources and Approaches (1988)

Bachrach, Bernard S., The imperial roots of Merovingian military organization from Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society in a European Perspective, AD 1-1300 (1997)

Balard, Michel, Les transports maritimes genois vers la Terre Sainte – from I Comuni Italiani nel Regno di Gerusalemme (1986)

Balard, Michel, La poliorcétique des Croisés lors de la Premiere Croisade - from Byzantinische Forschungen v.25 (1999)

Barber, Malcolm, Frontier Warfare in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Campaign of Jacob’s Ford, 1178-79 - from The Crusades and their Sources (1998)

Barber, Malcolm, The Albigensian Crusades: Wars Like Any Other? – from Dei gesta per Francos (2001)

Barton, Simon, From Tyrants to Soldiers of Christ: the nobility of twelfth-century Leon-Castile and the struggle against Islam – from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.44 (2000)

Barton, Simon, A Forgotten Crusade: Alfonso VII of Leon-Castile and the Campaign for Jaen (1148) – from Historical Research v.73 (2000)

Beech, George T., A Norman-Italian Adventurer in the East: Richard of Salerno, 1097-1112 – from Anglo-Norman Studies v.15 (1993)

Bennett, Matthew, La Régle du Temple as a Military Manual or How to Deliver a Cavalry Charge – from Studies in Medieval History Presented to R. Allen Brown (1989)

Bennett, Matthew, The Development of Battle Tactics in the Hundred Years War – from Arms, Armies and Fortifications in the Hundred Years War (1994)

Blieck, Edgar de, Analysis of Crowland’s Section on the Usurpation of Richard III - (2003)

Bliese, John R., The Courage of the Normans: A Contemporary Study of Battle Rhetoric - from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.35 (1991)

Bowlus, Charles R., Warfare and Society in the Carolingian Ostmark – from Austrian History Yearbook v. 14 (1978)

Burns, Robert I., How to End a Crusade: Techniques for Making Peace in the Thirteenth Century Kingdom of Valencia – from Military Affairs v.35 (1971) (PDF file)

Burns, Robert I., Warrior Neighbours: Alfonso el Sabio and Crusader Valencia: an Archival Case Study in His International Relations – from Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies v.21 (1990)

Caferro, William, Italy and the companies of adventure in the fourteenth century, The Historian 58 (1996)

Cannon, Henry Lewis, The Battle of Sandwich and Eustace the Monkfrom English Historical Review v.27 (1912)

Carey, Brian T., Debacle at Manzikert, 1071: Prelude to the Crusades – from Medieval History Magazine 5 (2004)

Chapoutot-Remadi, Mounira, Thirty Years of Research on the History of the Medieval Maghrib – from The Maghrib in Question (1997)

Chevedden, Paul E, et al., The Trebuchet – from Scientific American (July 1995)

Chevedden, Paul E., Black Camels and Blazing Bolts: The Bolt-Projecting Trebuchet in the Mamluk Army – from Mamluk Studies Review 8:1 (2004)

Christides, Vassilios, Military Intelligence in Arabo-Byzantine Naval Warfare – from Byzantium at War (1997)

Christie, Niall G.F.,  The Presentation of the Franks in Selected Muslim Sources from the Crusades of the 12th Century – Unpublished M.Litt dissertation, University of St. Andrews, 1996

Clough, Cecil H., The Romagna campaign of 1494: a significant military encounter – from The French Descent into Renaissance Italy 1494-95: Antecedents and Effects (1995)

Colish, Marcia, Machiavelli’s Art of War: A Reconsideration – from Renaissance Quarterly v.51 (1998)

Conlan, Thomas D., In Little Need of Divine Intervention – from part 3 of his book, In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Takezaki Suenaga’s Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of Japan (2001)

Contamine, Phillippe, La musique militaire dans le fonstionnement des armees: l’example francais (v.1300-v.1550) – from From Crecy to Mohacs: Warfare in the Late Middle Ages (1997)

Conybeare, Frederick C., Antiochus Strategos’ Account of the Sack of Jerusalem in AD 614 - from English Historical Review v.25 (1910)

Cook Jr, Weston F, Warfare and Firearms in Fifteenth Century Morocco, 1400-1492 – from War and Society v. 11 (1993)

Coupland, Simon, Carolingian Arms and Armour in the Ninth Century – from Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies v.21 (1990)

Coupland, Simon, The Frankish Tribute Payments to the Vikings and their Consequences – from Francia v.26 (1999)

Curry, Anne, Sex and the Soldier in Lancastrian Normandy, 1415 – 1450 – from Reading Medieval Studies v.14 (1988)

Curry, Anne, The Nationality of Men-at-Arms serving in English Armies in Normandy and the pays de conquete, 1415-1450: A Preliminary Survey - from Reading Medieval Studies 18 (1992)

Dajani-Shakeel, Hadia, A Reassessment of Some Medieval and Modern Perceptions of the Counter-Crusade – from The Jihad and its Times: Dedicated to Andrew Stefan Ehrenkreutz (1991)

Dennis, George T., The Byzantines at Battle - from Byzantium at War (1997)

Dennis, George T., Byzantine Heavy Artillery: The Helepolis – from Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies v.39 (1998)

DeVries, Kelly, God, leadership, Flemings and Archery: Contemporary Perspectives of Victory and Defeat at the Battle of Sluys 1340 – from American Neptune v.55 (1995) (PDF file)

DeVries, Kelly, Contemporary Views of Edward III’s failure at the Siege of Tournai - from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.39 (1995)

DeVries, Kelly, The Use of Gunpowder Weaponry by and Against Joan of Arc During the Hundred Years War – from War and Society v.14 (1996)

DeVries, Kelly, Teenagers at War During the Middle Ages – from The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150-1650 (2002)

DeVries, Kelly, The Battle of Nicopolis- from Medieval History Magazine 2 (2003)

Dimnik, Martin, The Struggle over control of Kiev in 1235 and 1236 - from Canadian Slavonic Papers v.21 (1979)

Ditchburn, David, Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440s – from Ships, Guns and Bibles in the North Sea and the Baltic States, c.1350-c.1700 (2000)

Dotson, John E., Fleet Operations in the First Genoese-Venetian War, 1264-1266 – from Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies v.30 (1999)

Dotson, John E., Foundations of Venetian Naval Strategy from Pietro II Orseoto to the Battle of Zoncho, 1000-1500 – from Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies v.32 (2001)

Duffy, Sean, King John’s expedition to Ireland, 1210: the evidence reconsidered – from Irish Historical Studies v.30 (1996)

Eads, Valerie, Means, Motive, Opportunity: Medieval Women and the Recourse to Arms (2006)

Edbury, Peter, Looking Back on the Second Crusade: Some Late Twelfth-Century English Perspectives – from The Second Crusade and the Cistercians (1992)

Edgington, Susan, Pagan Peverel: An Anglo-Norman Crusader – from Crusade and Settlement (1985)

Ehlers, Axel, The Crusade of the Teutonic Knights against Lithuania reconsidered – from Crusade and conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150-1500 (2001)

Ekdahl, Sven, Horses and Crossbows: Two Important Warfare Advantages of the Teutonic Order in Prussia – from The Military Orders, Volume 2: Welfare and Warfare (1998)

Eley, Penny and Bennett, Philip E., The Battle of Hastings according to Gaimar, Wace and Benoit: rhetoric and politics - from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.43 (1999)

Eltis, David, Towns and Defence in Later Medieval Germany – from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.33 (1989)

Emmert, Thomas A., The Battle of Kosovo: Early Reports of Victory and Defeat - from Kosovo: Legacy of a Medieval Battle

English, Edward D., Urban Castles in Medieval Siena: The Sources and Images of Power – from The Medieval Castle (1984)

Ferzoco, George, The Origin of the Second Crusade - from The Second Crusade and the Cistercians (1992)

Fine, John V.A., A Tale of Three Fortresses: Controversies Surrounding the Turkish Conquest of Smerderevo, of an Unnamed Fortress at the Junction of the Sava and Bosna, and of Bobovacfrom Peace and War in Byzantium: Essays in Honor of George T. Dennis, S.J. (1995)

FitzPatrick, Liz, Raiding and Warring in Monastic Ireland – from History Ireland v.1 (1993)

Foulds, Trevor, The Siege of Nottingham Castle in 1194 – from Transactions of the Thoroton Society of Nottinghamshire, v.95 (1991)

Frame, Robin, The Campaign against the Scots in Munster, 1317 – from Irish Historical Studies v. 24 (1984-85)

France, John, Anna Comnena, the Alexiad and the First Crusade – from Reading Medieval Studies v.10 (1984)

Francis, Dominic, Oliver of Paderborn and his Siege Engine at Damietta – from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.37 (1993)

Fuess, Albrecht, Rotting Ships and Razed Harbors: The Naval Policy of the Mamluks – from Mamluk Studies Review  v.5 (2001)

Gade, Kari Ellen, Northern Lights on the Battle of Hastings – from Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies v.28 (1997)

Garcia, José Manuel Rodríguez, La Marina Alfonsí al Asalto de Africa, 1240-1280.  Consideraciones Estratégicas e Historia – from Revista de Historia Naval v.85 (2004) – PDF file

Gillingham, John, Richard I and the Science of Warfare – from War and Government: Essays in Honour of J.O. Prestwich (1984)

Gillingham, John, War and Chivalry in the History of William the Marshall – from Thirteenth Century England v.2 (1988)

Gillingham, John, William the Bastard at War – from Studies in Medieval History Presented to R. Allen Brown (1989)

Gillmor, Carroll, Charles the Bald and the small free farmers, 862-869 - from Military aspects of Scandinavian society in a European perspective, AD 1-1300 

Gillmor, Carroll, Practical Chivalry: The Training of Horses for Tournaments and Warfare – from Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History v.13 (1992)

Gilmour-Bryson, Anne, The London Templar Trial Testimony: ‘Truth’, Myth, or Fable – from A World Explored: Essays in Honour of Laurie Gardiner (1993)

Given-Wilson, Christopher, The Ransom of Olivier de Guesclin – from The Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Studies v.54 (1981)

Goitien, S.D., Glimpses from the Cairo Geniza on Naval Warfare in the Mediterranean and on the Mongol Invasions – from Studi Orientalistic in onore di Levi Della Vida (1956)

Goodall, John, Dover Castle and the Great Siege of 1216 – from Chateau Gaillard v.19 (2000)

Grabois, Aryeh, Militia and Malitia: The Bernardine Vision of Chivalry – from The Second Crusade and the Cistercians (1992)

Green, Louis, Changes in the Nature of War in Early Fourteenth Century Tuscany – from War and Society v.1 n.1 (1983)

Haldon, John, Strategies of Defence, Problems of Security:  the Garrisons of Constantinople in the Middle Byzantine Period - from Constantinople and its Hinterland (1995)

Haldon, John, The Organisation and Support of an Expeditionary Force: Manpower and Logistics in the Middle Byzantine Period – from Byzantium at War (1997)

Halpin, Andrew, Military Archery in Medieval Ireland: Archaeology and History - from Military Studies in Medieval Europe – Papers of the ‘Medieval Europe Brugge 1997 Conference – volume 11 (1997) (PDF file)

Hamblin, William J., Saladin and Muslim Military Theory – from The Horns of Hattin (1992) (PDF file)

Hanak, Walter,  The Infamous Svjatoslav: Master of Duplicity in War and Peace? – from Peace and War in Byzantium (1995)

Hanner, Brent, The King’s Mirror as a Medieval Military Manual (2001)

Hanson, Chris, The Mongol Siege of Xiangyang and Fan-ch’eng and the Song military (2006)

Hardy, Robert, The Military Archery at Neville’s Cross, 1346 – from The Battle of Neville’s Cross 1346 (1998)

Herwaarden, Jan van, The War in the Low Countries – from Froissart: Historian (1981)

Hicks, Michael, Richard, Duke of Gloucester and the North - from Richard III and the North (1986)

Hicks, Michael, Propaganda and the First Battle of St.Albans, 1455 – from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.44 (2000) (PDF file)

Hoch, Martin, The Choice of Damascus as the Objective of the Second Crusade: a re-evaluation – from Autour de la Première Croisade (1996)

Holden, Brock W., King John, the Braoses, and the Celtic Fringe, 1207-1216 – from Albion: Journal of British Studies v.33 (2001)

Hollister, Warren, The Rouen Riots and Conan’s Leap – from Peritia v.10 (1996)

Holmes, Catherine, ‘How the east was won’ in the reign of Basil II – from Eastern Approaches to Byzantium (2001)

Hopwood, Keith R., The Byzantine-Turkish Frontier c.1250-1300 – from Acta Viennensia Ottomanica (1999)

Humphreys, R. Stephen, Ayyubids, Mamluks, and the Latin East in the Thirteenth Century – from Mamluk Studies Review v.2 (1998)

Humphries, Paul Douglas, ‘Of Arms and Men’: Siege and Battle Tactics in the Catalan Grand Chronicles (1208-1387) - from Military Affairs v.49 (1985)

Huxley, George, The Emperor Michael III and the battle of Bishop’s Meadow (AD 863) – from Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies v.16 (1975)

Inalcik, Halil, Osman Ghazi’s Siege of Nicaea and the Battle of Bapheus – from The Ottoman Emirate: 1300-1389 (1993)

Izbicki, Thomas M., The Punishment of Pride: Castilian Reactions to the Battle of Aljubarrota  

James, Edward, The militarisation of Roman Society, 400-700 – from Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society

Janssen, Walter, The International Background of Castle Building in Central Europe – from Danish Medieval History: New Currents (1981)

Jones, Michael, The fortunes of war: the military career of John, second lord Bourchier (d.1400) – from Essex Archaeology and History v.26 (1995)

Jordan, William Chester, Cutting the budget: the impact of the crusades on appropriations for public works in France – from Revue belge de philosophie et d’histoire v.76 (1998)

Jorgensen, Anne Norgard, Military organisation and sea-defence in Denmark, 200-1200 AD – from Military Studies in Medieval Europe (1997) (PDF file)

Kaegi, Walter, Procopius the Military Historian – from Byzantinische Forschungen 15 (1990)

Kagay, Donald, The Town In Service Of War In The Medieval Crown Of Aragon (2002)

Kedar, Benjamin Z., The Battle of Hattin Revisited - from The Battle of Hattin (1992)

Kelleher, John V., The Battle of Móin Mhór, 1151 – from Celtica: The Journal of Celtic Studies v.20 (1988)

Kleinschmidt, Harald, Fighting for Land – Fighting for Power: War Aim Making in Renaissance Europe – from The Way of the Knight and the Aesthetics of Women (2003)

Kosztolnyik, Z.J., The Crusade of Andrew II – a chapter from his work Hungary in the Thirteenth Century (1996) – added August 30, 2002

Kosztolnyik, Z.J., The Engagement at Mohi, 1241 – a chapter from his work Hungary in the Thirteenth Century (1996)

Latimer, Paul, Henry II’s Campaign Against the Welsh in 1165 (with Appendix: The 1164 Levy for the Army of Wales) – from, The Welsh Historical Review, v.14:4 (1989)

Lawson, M.K., Observations upon a Scene in the Bayeux Tapestry, the Battle of Hastings and the Military System of the Late Anglo-Saxon State – from The Medieval State: Essays Presented to James Campbell (2000)

Luttrell, Anthony, Latin Responses to Ottoman Expansion before 1389 – from The Ottoman Emirate: 1300-1389 (1993)

Lyon, Bryce, The Dividends from War in the Low Countries (1338-1340) – from Peasants and Townsmen in Medieval Europe (1995) (PDF file)

Macdonald, Alastair, Approaches to Conflict on the Anglo-Scottish Borders in the late Fourteenth Century – from Ships, Guns and Bibles in the North Sea and Baltic States, c.1350-c.1700 (2000)

Mack, Katharin R., Changing thegns: Cnut’s conquest and the English aristocracy – from Albion: Journal of British Studies v.16 (1984)

Mackenzie, Neil D., The Fortifications of al-Qahira (Cairo) under the Ayyubids – from The Jihad and its Times: Dedicated to Andrew Stefan Ehrenkreutz (1991)

Maddern, Philippa, Weather, War and Witches: Sign and Cause in Fifteenth-century English Vernacular Chronicles - from A World Explored: Essays in Honour of Laurie Gardiner (1993)

Mallett, Michael, Preparations for War in Florence and Venice in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century – from Florence and Venice: Comparisons and Relations vol.1 (1979) (PDF file)

Mantovani, Sergio, L’assedio di Ficarolo (maggio-giugno 1482) – from Tra terra acqua e terra. Storia materiale in Transpadana (2001)

Mantovani, Sergio, Fortificazioni estensi nella pianura tra Modena e Bologna all’epoca del Duca Ercole I - from Rocche e Castelli Lungo il Confine tra Bologna e Modena, eds. P. Bonacini and Domenico Cerami (2005) – PDF file

Markham, Paul, The Battle of Manzikert: Military Disaster or Political Failure? (2005)

Markov, Dmetrius Dviochenko de, The battle of Tannenberg (Grunwald) in 1410 – from From Crecy to Mohacs: Warfare in the Late Middle Ages (1997)

Marshall, Christopher J., The Crusading Motivation of the Italian City Republics in the Latin East, c. 1096-1104 – from Rivista di Bizantinistica v.1 (1991)

Marshall, Christopher J., The Use of the Charge in Battles in the Latin East, 1192 – 1291 – from Historical Research v.65 (1992)

Mate, Mavis, The Impact of War on the Economy of Canterbury Cathedral Priory, 1294-1340 – from Speculum v.54 (1982) (PDF file)

McCotter, Stephen, Byzantines, Avars and the Introduction of the Trebuchet (2003)

McCotter, Stephen, ‘The Nation which Forgets its Defenders will Itself be Forgotten’:  Emperor Maurice and the Persians (2003)

McDonald, R. Andrew, “Treachery in the Remotest Territories of Scotland:” Northern Resistance to the Canmore Dynasty, 1130-1230 – from Canadian Journal of History v.34 (1999)

McDougall, Ian, Discretion and deceit: a re-examination of a military stratagem in Egils saga - from The Middle Ages in the Northwest (1995)

McGeer, Eric, Byzantine Siege Warfare in Theory and Practice – from The Medieval City Under Siege (1995)

McGlynn, Sean, The myths of medieval warfare – from History Today v. 44 n.1 (1994)

McGrath, Stamatina, The Battles of Dorostolon (971): Rhetoric and Reality – from Peace and War in Byzantium (1995)

McNamee, C.J., William Wallace’s Invasion of Northern England in 1297 - from Northern History v.26 (1990)

Mondschein, Ken, Strategies of War in Westeros (2013)

Morillo, Stephen, Guns and Government: A Comparative Study of Europe and Japan – from the Journal of World History v.6 n.1 (1995)

Moroz, Irina, The Idea of Holy War in the Orthodoxy World (On Russian Chronicles from the Twelfth – Sixteenth Century) – from Quaestiones medii aevi novae v.4 (1999) (PDF file)

Morris, J.E., Mounted Infantry in Mediaeval Warfare – from Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 3rd Series, v. 8 (1914)

Mott, Lawrence, The Battle of Malta, 1283: Prelude to a Disaster – from Circle of War in the Middle Ages (1999)

Muresan, Dan Ioan, Avant Nicopolis: la campagne de 1395 pour le contrôle du Bas-Danube – from Quaderni della Casa Romena di Venezia v.3 (2004)

Noble, Peter S., Eyewitnesses of the Fourth Crusade – the War against Alexius III – from Reading Medieval Studies v.25 (1999)

Novicianvs, Goergivs, A Military History of Belarusian Lands Up to the End of Twelfth Century A.D. (2006)

O’Brien, A.F., The Impact of the Anglo-Normans on Munster (1997)

O’Cleirigh, Cormac, Irish frontier warfare – A fifteenth-century case study – from From Crecy to Mohacs: Warfare in the Late Middle Ages (1997)

Oikonomides, Nicolas, The Turks in Europe (1305-13) and the Serbs in Asia Minor (1313) – from The Ottoman Emirate: 1300-1389 (1993)

Okeeffe, Tadhg, Medieval Frontiers and Fortification: The Pale and its Evolution – from Dublin City and County: From Prehistory to Present (1992)

Omran, Mahmoud Said, John Kinnamos as a Historian of the Second Crusadefrom Uluslararasi Hacli Seferleri Sempozyumu (1999)

Onon, Urgunge, The Art of War under Chinggis Qahan - from The Secret History of the Mongols: The Life and Times of Chinggis Khan (2001)

Pappas, Nicholas C.J., Between Two Empires: Serbian Survival in the Years after Kosovo – from Serbia’s Historical Heritage (1994)

Pappas, Nicholas C.J., English Refugees in the Byzantine Armed Forces:  The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness (2004)

Paranko, Rostyslav, Standards of Living, Order, and Prestige: Public Facilities in Early Fifteenth-Century Lviv (Lemberg) – from Medium Aevum Quotidianum n.42 (2000)

Pedani, Maria Pia, Turkish Raids in Friuli at the End of the Fifteenth Century – from Acta Viennensia Ottomanica (1999)

Pelinski, Jaroslaw, The Contest between Lithuania-Rus’ and the Golden Horde in the Fourteenth Century for Supremacy over Eastern Europe – from Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi v.2 (1982)

Philippides, Marios, The Fall of Constantinople: Bishop Leonard and the Greek Accounts – from Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies v.22 (1981)

Plakans, Andrejs, Invasion, Conquest, and the Creation of Livonia -  chapter 2 of The Latvians: A Short History (1995)

Popescu, Elizabeth Shepherd, Recent Excavations at Norwich Castle  – from Military Studies in Medieval Europe (1997)

Porter, Elizabeth, Chaucer’s Knight, the Alliterative Morte Arthure, and the Medieval Laws of War: a Reconsideration - from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.27 (1983)

Powell, James M., Frederick II and the Rebellion of the Muslims of Sicily, 1200-1224from Uluslararasi Hacli Seferleri Sempozyumu (1999)

Prestwich, Michael, English Armies in the Early Stages of the Hundred Years War: A Scheme in 1341 – from Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Studies v.56 (1983)

Prinz, Frederich E., King, Clergy and War at the time of the Carolingians – from Saints, Scholars and Heroes: Studies in Medieval Culture (1979) (PDF file)

Queller, Donald E., and Katele, Irene B., Venice and the Conquest of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem – from Studi Veneziani v.21 (1986)

Razso, Gyula, Hungarian strategy against the Ottomans (1365-1526) – from From Crecy to Mohacs: Warfare in the Late Middle Ages (1997)

Reeves, A. Compton, Some of Humphrey Stafford’s Military Indentures - from Nottingham Medieval Studies v.16 (1972) (PDF file)

Reuter, Timothy, The recruitment of armies in the Early Middle Ages: what can we know? – from Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society in a European Perspective, AD 1-1300 (1997)

Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Venetian Crusade of 1122-1124 – from I Comuni Italiani nel Regno Crociato di Gerusalemme (1986)

Robbert, Louise Buengar, Venetian Participation in the Crusade of Damietta – from Studi Veneziani v.30 (1995)

Rogers, Clifford J., The Military Revolutions of the Hundred Years’ War – from The Journal of Military History v.57 (1993)

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